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erection of new buildings, in 1833, there is a prospect, that this ancient town may retain more than usual of its young people, and advance in numbers as well as in property.

POLITICAL AFFAIRS

These were well understood by many of our ancestors, who continually strove to have them far removed from the spirit and dominion of monarchy.
181635, March 4th. Nicholas Easton and Henry Short, having been illegally chosen, are not allowed to hold their seats as Deputies. John Spencer is reported as regularly elected. May 6th. J. Spencer is on a committee to consider the act of Mr. Endicott in defacing the colors at Salem, and to report how far he is censurable.
501643, July. Three of the magistrates and the elders of Ipswich and Rowley, had written to the Governor and Assistants against affording aid to La Tour, as implying war upon D’Aulnay.
     1642, Sept. 21. Due to Mr. Bartholmew for the bill following, which he hath paid for charges of freemen goeing to Boston about the appeale, 15 bushels of merchantable English wheat, ---
          To goodman Sherman for diet and lodging, £2 0s.
            "        "        Fairbanks,       .      .      .      .     2s.
            "        "        Turner for bread and beer,    .     3s.
1647, Jan. 6th. The petition of Dr. Child and others, for having men, not church members, eligible to offices of civil government, and for Episcopalians to enjoy equal privileges with Congregationalists, and for laws to be the same here as in England, is circulated in Ipswich, and is much liked by the young people. On this occasion, S. Symonds wrote to Governor Winthrop, "This town has very few malignants," meaning the supporters of Dr. Child, who were then considered generally as great disorganizers.
181654, June 20th. S. Bradstreet, S. Symonds, and D. Dennison meet here "about a narrative in the way of remonstrance of all matters respecting that which is charged on the General Court, concerning the breach of the Confederacy, for the vindication of this Court’s actings in such respects." The Confederacy here mentioned was the Union, which existed among New England Colonies except Rhode Island. The narrative was to be forwarded to Oliver Cromwell.
1661, May 24th. As Charles II. was urging our fathers to a retraction of their anti-royal policy, John Eliot, missionary to the Indians, is required by the General Court to confess,

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that he had gone too far in expressing himself against kingly government in his book, called "Christian Commonwealth," published nine or ten years before in England. Mr. Eliot’s confession is ordered to be posted up in several towns, among which was Ipswich.
June 7th. Mr. Cobbet, D. Dennison and S. Symonds, are appointed by the Legislature, to report on the relations which the colony hold to the King. They do this, the 10th, according to charter rights, and their report is accepted.
June 10th. The Court having read and considered several petitions, presented and subscribed by freemen and others of Ipswich, Newbury and Sudbury, about submission to the demands of His Majesty, reply, that they shall "not be wanting in the prosecution of such means as may be most conducible to our peace."
1665, May. Messrs. Carr, Cartwright, and Maverick, the King’s commissioners, send to the non-freemen of Ipswich and other towns, desiring them to be present at the next Court of Elections, to witness what they would try to do for their relief from civil disabilities.
1666, Sept. 11th. As a petition had bee presented by people of Boston, Salem, Ipswich, and Newbury, to the General Court, desiring that the King’s order might be obeyed, for sending over to England certain persons, whom he charged with disloyalty, and that other means might be taken to conciliate him, the Court notify the chief of such petitioners to appear before them next October. There were seventy-three of Ipswich, who thus applied, and John Appleton was summoned to answer in their behalf.
41667, June 25th. Wm. Stevens is charged with speaking against "His Majesty, our Sovereign Lord and King, Charles II." On trial he confesses the truth of the accusation, is disfranchised from being a freeman, and from holding any office during the Court’s pleasure, and to pay £20 fine and costs of the trial, and to be imprisoned one month. There were several cases of this kind tried about the same time.
1678, Oct. 2d. All persons who had neglected it are required take the oath of allegiance to Charles II. There were one hundred and twenty-one of Ipswich, who had not complied with this custom.

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RESIGNATION OF THE CHARTER. 51685, Feb. 11th. "The deputies desiring to know the town’s mind with respect to the papers, that Mr. Randolph left, whether they were willing to make a free resignation, as in the declaration; there was not one person, that voted, when tried, that he was willing. It was also voted, that all those, that were desirous to retain the privileges granted in the charter, and conferred by his Royal Majesty now reigning, should manifest the same by holding up their hands, which vote was unanimous in the affirmative." A decision against the Charter had been recently and conditionally made in England. The General Court declined to allow this decision. Randolph, aware that he could not succeed with them, encouraged the people to vote for the surrender of the Charter. In this he was disappointed. While he was thus busy, and while our fathers were dreading the despotic stretch of kingly power, news arrives that Charles II. was dead. This event revived the hopes of Massachusetts, and led them to expect better treatment from James II., successor to the British Crown.
TAXATION RESISTED. 571687, Aug. 23d. Sir Edmund Andros having caused a tax of 1d. on £1 to be levied, Ipswich pass a vote, that, as it was against the rights of Englishmen to have rates laid upon them, without their consent in an Assembly or Parliament, they would petition the King before they complied with the Treasurer’s order. The Governor was much displeased at such a stand. He had the principal men here apprehended.
September. These persons are so grievously prosecuted by Andros, they ask him and his council to overlook their neglect of the Treasurer’s instructions and their words, which had been construed as disloyal.
51689, Dec. 24th. Ipswich votes, "That the Rev. John Wise and the Selectmen draw up the town’s abuses with respect to the rates taken and the calumnies cast upon the town and persons, who have suffered by the late Government in Sir Edmund Andros’ rule, and present them to the town next lecture-day after lecture."
58"We, John Wise, John Andrews, sen., Robert Kinsman, Wm. Goodhue, jr., all of Ipswich, about 22d of Aug., 1687,

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were, with several principal inhabitants of Ipswich, met at Mr. John Appleton’s, and there discoursed and concluded, that it was not the town’s duty any way to assist that ill method of raising money without a General Assembly, which was apparently intended by abovesaid Sir Edmund and his Council, as witness a late act issued out by them for such a purpose. The next day in a general town-meeting of the inhabitants of Ipswich, we, the abovenamed J. Wise, J. Andrews, R. Kinsman, W. Goodhue, with the rest of the town, there met, (none contradicting,) and gave our assent to the vote then made. The ground of our trouble, our crime, was the copy, transmitted to the Council, viz. ‘At a legal town-meeting, Aug. 23, assembled by virtue of an order from John Usher, Esq., for choosing a commissioner to join with the Selectmen to assess the inhabitants according to an act of His Excellency the Governor and Council, for laying of rates. The town then considering, that this act doth infringe their liberty, as freeborn English subjects of His Majesty, by interfering with the Statute Laws of the land, by which it was enacted, that no taxes should be levied upon the subjects without the consent of an Assembly, chosen by the Freeholders for assessing of the same, they do therefore vote, that they are not willing to choose a commissioner for such an end without said privilege, and, moreover, consent not, that the Selectmen do proceed to lay any such rate until it be appointed by a General Assembly, concurring with Governor and Council.’ We, the complainants, with Mr. John Appleton and Thomas French, all of Ipswich, were brought to answer for the said vote out of our own county, thirty or forty miles in Suffolk and in Boston, kept in jail for contempt and high misdemeanor, as our mittimus specifies, and, upon demand, denied the privilege of Habeas Corpus, and from prison overruled to answer at a Court of Oyer and Terminer in Boston. Our judges were Joseph Dudley of Roxbury, Stoughton of Dorchester, John Usher of Boston, and Edward Randolph. He that officiates as Clerk and Attorney in the case, is George Farwell. The jurors only twelve, and most of them (as is said) non-freeholders of any land in the colony, some of them strangers and foreigners, gathered up (as we suppose) to serve the present turn. In our defence was pleaded the repeal of the Law of Assessment upon the place; also the Magna Charta of England, and the Statute Laws, that secure the subjects’ properties and estates, &c. To which was replied by one of

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the judges, the rest by silence assenting, that we must not think the laws of England follow us to the ends of the earth, or whither we went. And the same person (J. Wise abovesaid testifies) declared in open council, upon examination of said Wise, ‘Mr. Wise, you have no more privileges left you, than not to be sold as slaves,’ and no man in Council contradicted. By such laws our trial and trouble began and ended. Mr. Dudley, aforesaid Chief Judge. to close up the debate and trial, trims up a speech that pleased himself (as we suppose) more than the people. Among many other remarkable passages to this purpose, he bespeaks the jury’s obedience, who (we suppose) were very well pre-inclined, viz. ‘I am glad,’ says he, ‘there be so many worthy gentlemen of the jury so capable to do the King’s service, and we expect a good verdict from you, seeing this matter hath so sufficiently proved against the criminals.’
"Note. The evidence in the case, as to the substance of it, was, that we too boldly endeavoured to persuade ourselves we were Englishmen and under privileges, and that we were, all six of us aforesaid, at the town-meeting of Ipswich aforesaid, and, as the witness supposed, we assented to the aforesaid vote, and, also, that John Wise made a speech at the same time, and said we had a good God and a good King, and should do well to stand to our privileges. The jury return us all six guilty, being all involved in the same information. We were remanded from verdict to prison, and there kept one and twenty days for judgment. There, with Mr. Dudley’s approbation, as Judge Stoughton said, this sentence was passed, viz. John Wise suspended from the ministerial function, fine £50, pay cost, £1000 bond; John Appleton, not to bear office, fine £50, pay cost, £1000 bond; John Andrews, not to bear office, fine £30, pay cost, £500 bond; Robert Kinsman, not to bear office, fine £20, pay cost, £500 bond; Wm. Goodhue the same; Thomas French, not to bear office, fine £15, pay cost, £500 bond. These bonds were for good behaviour one year.
"We judge the total charges for one case and trial, under one single information, involving us six men, abovesaid, in expense of time and moneys of us and our relations for our necessary succour and support, to amount to more, but no less, than £400 money. Too tedious to illustrate more at this time, and so we conclude."

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This narration was drawn up at the request of the government, which succeeded that of Andros, so that it might be sent to England among the charges against him. Several years afterwards, the town made up the loss which the narrators incurred, as previously described.
REVOLUTION. 181689, May 9th. The bloodless overthrow of Andros’ government having been effected on the 18th ult., Rev. John Wise and Nehemiah Jewett meet with other Representatives in Boston, to consult with the Council about the public affairs of the colony. No town was probably more glad than Ipswich, that Andros was constrained to relinquish his authority by the threatening attitude of the people in Boston and vicinity. The occasion of so sudden a change was, that news arrived, that the Prince of Orange had landed in England to put down the sway of James II., whose officers in Massachusetts had rendered themselves obnoxious to most of the colonists. Had William failed in this enterprise, there would probably have been a reaction upon our fathers as oppressive, as what they experienced after favoring Cromwell and then falling into the hands of restored and avenging Royalty.
MASON’S CLAIM. 181681, Jan. 4th. John Mason presents to the General Court the King’s letter about his claim to territory from Naumkeag River in Salem, to the Merrimack. This subject had been long agitated. Jan. 11th. The Court order a copy of this letter to be handed to General Dennison and other magistrates of Essex, so that the tenants of the land may convene at Ipswich or Newbury with all convenient speed. June 3d. The Court, in answer to the King’s letter, say, "We have published his pleasure to the villages on the south of Merrimack, some part whereof Mr. Mason claims. But neither the inhabitants there nor we know Mason’s bounds. We are in hope, that what may be presented to His Majesty on behalf of said inhabitants will obviate the clamour and groundless pretence of the complainer."
51682, Jan 9th. The expenses of Ipswich are mentioned, for a committee who had met about Mason’s demand. 18Feb. The General Court petition the King to protect the people of Ipswich and Cape Ann against Mason’s claim. In a peti-

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tion of these towns to His Majesty, they say, "We have subdued the wilderness with great pains and cost; our lands have passed through several hands; we were confirmed in our rights by law of 1657 for settling inheritances, which was not designed against Robert Mason, of whom and of whose claim we were then wholly ignorant. So we continued till surprised by order of the General Court, according to your letter of Sept. 30th,1680, requiring us to furnish agents and evidences, as to our lands. We implore your Majesty to confirm us in our rights, or order Mr. Mason to try his claim in courts of justice here." Messrs. Jonathan Wade and Daniel Epes were instructed by the General Court to obtain signers to this petition.
5Nov. 27th. As Thomas Lovel, a selectman, has been to Mr. Mason about a compliance, and advised others, that it would be best to comply, — voted, that he be excluded from his office.
181683, Feb. 15th. The Legislature appoint justices to keep a court in Essex for the trying of the case. May 16th. The General Court allow John Wales and Content Mason, relict of John Tufton Mason, to give deeds as her husband had done. This shows that Mr. Mason had his claim confirmed here without going to England. Some paid a quit-rent of 2s. a year for every house built on the land of his grant, which was in their possession. There is no doubt but that the Mason grant from Naumkeag river to the Merrimack, was made by the Council of Plymouth before the settlement of Massachusetts. The grant however, subsequently made to the Massachusetts Company, included his. Thence arose misunderstanding and difficulty when Mason’s heir pressed for ten townships in the same colony, which he considered to be his legal right. It is not to be wondered at, that Ipswich and the rest of these townships felt anxious while they were claimed by Robert T. Mason, whose wish it was to have them called Mariana and held by him and his heirs "in free and common soccage." When the case was decided, that such places should pay quit-rents, they were relieved from the fear lest it should be much worse. Knowing the evil attendant on this subject, they composed their minds to meet it, however otherwise than they wished.
OTHER POLITICAL CONCERNS. 51731, Sept. 7th. "The

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representatives read a communication from the House, and considerable debate ensued. On motion made and seconded, the question was put whether the town would choose a committee to prepare instructions for our representatives on the weighty affair of supplying the Province treasury, and report their opinion thereon." It passed in the negative, as it did in other towns. There was a general objection to supplying the treasury, as here proposed, because it was for the payment of governor Belcher’s salary, which had been due, and which was ordered by the King to be £1000. This royal interference in our Province affairs was considered by most of our people, as contrary to their charter rights.
201740, June 19th. On the question whether John Colman of Boston and Company be forbidden to issue bills of credit, as the Governor wanted such persons to be, Richard Rogers was with a majority of the House, that they should not be forbidden.
51754, July 19th. An extract from the bill relative to the excise on liquors, being read and debated, the question was put whether the town be in favor of it, and they voted in the negative.
1755, Jan. 28th. The plan, for a general union of the Colonies, before the Legislature, is read to the town, and they vote against it, and instruct Colonel John Choate, the representative, to use his influence to prevent its passage, because it materially affected charter privileges.
Oct. 21st. Instructions are given by Ipswich to Dr. John Calef, their representative to the General Court. These instructions mention the distressing and ruinous measures, taken by Parliament against America; request him to maintain charter rights; and state, that for this country to be justly under the particular laws of England, which militate with the charter, three things were necessary; one, that our fathers should have emigrated hither, as a national act, second, at national expense, and, third, should have been sent to settle some territory owned by the nation; — but our fathers came of their own accord, at their own expense, and had to buy or fight for their land. The instructions further say to the Doctor, "You are to do all you can to repeal the acts passed or may be passed."

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1766, Nov. 25th. The question being put, whether the town would give instructions to their representative, as to the compensation and act of indemnity and the bill pending, as to the Whale Fishery, it passed in the negative. The compensation, here mentioned, referred to damages done in Boston on account of the Stamp Act.
1768, Aug. 11th. "Voted, that the town of Ipswich highly approve the conduct of those gentlemen of the late House of Representatives, who were for maintaining the rights and liberties of their constituents and were against rescinding the resolves of a former House. Voted, that the thanks of this town be given to the worthy and much esteemed ninety-two gentlemen of the late House of Representatives, for their firmness and steadiness in standing up for and adhering to the just rights and liberties of the subject, when it was required of them, at the peril of their political existence, to rescind the resolves of the then former House of Representatives." The Representatives, here mentioned, were highly applauded through the colonies. "The Glorious Ninety-two," was a popular toast out of Massachusetts. As to the matter of rescinding, on June 21st, the Governor lays before the House a letter from the Earl of Hillsborough of April 22d, which expresses his Majesty’s displeasure for their resolve for "writing to other colonies on the subject of their intended representations against some late acts of Parliament, and that it was the King’s pleasure, that the House rescind the vote, which gave birth to the circular letter of Feb. 11th, 1768, from the Speaker." A clause in the Earl’s letter required the Governor to dissolve the General Court, if the said vote was not rescinded. June 30th. The House resolve not to rescind this vote, 92 to 17. Dr. John Calef of Ipswich was among the minority, for which he subsequently apologized. He, with other worthy men, was loth to pursue a course, which they feared would bring upon their country the displeasure of England without adequate benefit. It is not strange, in a view of human fallibility, that some were found rather to cleave to the mother government, than run the hazard of a revolution, which, if not successful, would render the condition of our people more unhappy. Still, it was well for us, that the majority thought and acted differently.
Sept. 19th. As proposed by Boston, Ipswich choose Michael Farley to represent them in Convention "to devise

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such measures, as the peace and safety of his Majesty’s good subjects in the Province, may require." This convention met Sept. 23d, and petitioned the Governor to call a constitutional Assembly. He refused and forbade them proceed in business. They answered him, that they claimed the right to meet and discuss public concerns.
1770, March 19th. The town "voted, that we are determined to retrench all extravagances, and that we will, to the utmost of our power, encourage our own manufactures, and that we will not, by ourselves or any for or under us, directly or indirectly purchase any goods of the persons who have imported or continue to import, or of any person or trader, who shall purchase any goods of said importers contrary to the agreement of the merchants in Boston and other trading towns in this government and the neighbouring colonies, until they make a public retraction, or a general importation takes place. And, further, taking under consideration the excessive use of tea, which has been such a bane to this country, voted, that we will abstain therefrom ourselves, and recommend the disuse of it in our families, until all the revenue acts are repealed." In the warrant for the meeting, at which these votes were passed, tea is called "that pernicious weed."
1772, Dec. 28th. A committee report, according to a letter from Boston, accompanied with the "State of the Rights of the Colonies and Infringements on them," for substance, 1. That infringements on our colonial rights are as stated by our brethren in Boston. It is of the utmost importance for this Province and others to stand firmly for their rights. — 2. All people of the American Colonies have a right, according to the British constitution, to dispose of their property as they see fit. — 3. Parliament, by assuming the right to legislate for the Colonies and to raise a revenue from them, acts contrary to the wishes of the people and the opinion of eminent men in Parliament. — 4. As a great grievance, the Governor is made independent of the Province for his support, and so the Judges of the Superior Court, the King’s Attorney, and Solicitor-General are all to be thus independent. — 5. It is matter of alarm, that commissioners have been appointed by late acts of Parliament (for preserving his Majesty’s dockyards, magazines, ships, ammunition, and stores,) to inquire out persons who burnt the schooner Gaspee at Providence, because there is a remedy for such offences without commis-

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sioners. — 6. Every part of the British dominions have a right to petition the King and Parliament, and to continue to do it till their grievances are redressed. This town are aggrieved, that petitions of this Province have been so little regarded. — 7. We instruct our representative to maintain in the General Court, at its next session, the rights of the Province, to make exertion that the Governor and Judges be paid by the Legislature, and not by the Crown; that the Earl of Dartmouth be informed, that the dissatisfied of this Province are not a small faction, but most of the people, who are dissatisfied because the Governor and Judges, and Board of Commissioners of the Customs, are independent of the Legislature here, and also, because of enormous powers vested in the Court of Admiralty, of posting regular troops in the Province, raising a revenue in America, and appropriating this revenue without the consent of the people in person or by their representatives; and "that his Lordship be assured, that the good people of this Province are and always have been firmly attached to his present Majesty and his royal family, and are desirous, to the utmost of their ability, to support government and promote quietness and good order." The representative of Ipswich is instructed to use his influence, that an agent of the House, separate from the Governor and Council, represent the condition of the Province to the King or his ministers, and, if the Governor refuse to allow grants of the House for such an agent, the representative is to try for the House to recommend to the several towns to pay the agent. — 8. We thank Boston for proceeding as they have, in their printed pamphlet, for informing the public of alarming encroachments on our Province rights, and for seasonably endeavouring to obtain the sense of the country. — 9. We will choose a committee to correspond with the committee of Boston and other towns on affairs of the Province.
This report, so fervently and fully breathing the spirit of liberty, which bore our country over the troubled waters of civil commotion to the attainment of freedom, is accepted. A committee of correspondence is chosen.
1773, Dec. 20th. Resolves of Ipswich. 1st. "That the inhabitants of this town have received real pleasure and satisfaction from the noble and spirited exertions of their brethren of Boston and other towns to prevent the landing of the detested tea, lately arrived there from the East India Company, subject to a duty," which goes to support persons

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not friendly to the interests of this Province. 2d. That they highly disapprove of the consignees of the East India Company, because of their equivocal answers to a respectable committee of Boston, and refusal to comply with the wish of their countrymen. 3d. That every person, who shall import tea while the act for duty on it continues, shall be held as an enemy. 4th. That no tea be sold in town while this act is in force; that if any one sell it here, he shall be deemed an enemy. — Voted, that these resolves be sent to the committee of correspondence of Boston.
1774, Aug. 29th. By request of Marblehead, Ipswich chooses a committee to unite with others, who intend to meet here September 6th, to concert measures in these distressed times. September 21st. voted, that the representatives join with those from other towns and form a Provincial Congress. September 26th. Instructions to the representatives of Ipswich, who were to meet with the Legislature, October 5th, at Salem, by order of the Governor. As it is a day of much darkness, this Province in particular suffering under ministerial vengeance, it requires wisdom and firmness so to act as, by the blessing of God, to convince our enemies, that we shall stand for our rights. We instruct you not to countenance "that unconstitutional Council appointed by the King, in submitting to act with them in one particular, and that, if the Governor will not allow the Council chosen by the people to sit, as the second branch of the Legislature, that you do not proceed to do one single act, unless it be to pass such resolves as may be judged necessary to testify your abhorrence of slavery and all attempts that but serve to have a tendency that way. We agree with the advice given by a Congress of this country, that a Provincial Congress be formed and meet together, to consult on what is to be done by this people as a body; and we would have you unite with such a Congress. We think it would be better to have each town send more persons to this Congress, than the law allows representatives to the General Court,, and we would have you exert yourselves for this. 45October 3d. Dr. John Calef, having been waited on by a committee of Ipswich, so that his views of late acts of parliament might be known, gives them leave to have it published in the "Essex Gazette" of Salem, that he regretted voting, June 30th, 1768, in favor of the royalists;

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that his purpose is to maintain the charter rights against the late acts of Britain. Such public acknowledgments from individuals in many towns were very common. November 21st. The town vote, unanimously, to approve the proposals and resolves of the Continental Congress.
1775, Jan. 3d. Voted, that Michael Farley be a delegate to the Provincial Congress to be held at Cambridge on the 1st of February. Jan. 19th. Instructions to him. 1st. To use his influence so that Congress appoint an early Fast, because of degeneracy from the good ways of our fathers, and of increasing wickedness and infidelity in Great Britain. 2d. To inquire if any towns have neglected the resolves of the Provincial Congress, and, if so, to publish them; and if any persons have not complied with the Association agreement, to have their names advertised. 3d. While enemies among ourselves say, that we are seeking after independence, when we are not, endeavour that the Congress alter the government so as to agree with our last charter. 4th. We approve of the wise recommendations of the late Provincial Congress, as to our manufactures. We should like some particular method pointed out for promoting them.
1776, March 11th. A committee of correspondence is chosen. April 24th. A committee is elected "to meet with other seaport committees of the county at the tavern near Beverly meeting-house this day, and to consult on measures to be taken for our safety in this difficult time." May 4th. A committee of intelligence is chosen. June 10th. "Voted, that the representatives be instructed, if the Continental Congress should, for the safety of the Colonies, declare them independent of Great Britain, the inhabitants here will solemnly pledge their lives and fortunes to support them in the measure." After the 17th of July, printed copies of the Declaration of Independence are read on Sabbath afternoon, at the close of public worship, in all the parishes, and this Declaration is recorded on the Town book, according to the order of the State Council. October 7th. Voted, that the representatives unite with the House in framing a state constitution, which shall be laid before the people previously to its being enacted. December 18th. A committee of inspection and correspondence is chosen.
1777, June 9th. Instructions to the representatives. "You are to oppose the repeal of the Price Act. We do not think

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it a source of animosity between Boston and the country, nor a shackle to trade. You are to act against the General Court's forming a new plan of government; to try for the removal of this Court to some convenient country town; for having all the State's money redeemed with continental currency, so that there be but one kind of currency in the United States; for giving encouragement to the raising of flax and wool."
1778, Jan. 12th. Voted to take under consideration "The Articles of the Confederation and Perpetual Union between the United States of America, as proposed to the Legislature of this State." January 19th. Voted to instruct the representatives to vote, that the delegates from Massachusetts favor the Articles of Confederation. April 6th. Voted, that a committee meet with others here, at Treadwell's, on the 15th instant, to consider the constitution and form of government proposed. June 4th. There are one hundred and ninety-one votes here against the proposed constitution, and only one in its favor.
1779, August 9th. Ipswich accepts the resolves of the Convention, lately at Concord, as to the high price of several articles of consumption. A committee is raised to regulate the prices of those articles not fixed by the Convention. Five persons are chosen to represent the town in the Convention to be held at Cambridge for framing a new constitution. August 16th. Two persons are chosen to meet in Convention at Concord, October 12th, to regulate the prices of goods. Nov. 5th. Voted to accept the result of the Convention at Concord on the 12th of October.
1780, June 15th. Voted not to accept the Constitution, unless the proposed amendments are allowed. The Constitution was adopted by the people this year.
1787, Dec. 3d. Michael Farley, John Choate, Daniel Noyes, and John Cogswell are chosen to meet in Boston on the second Wednesday of January, to consider the Constitution of the United States, as proposed by the National Convention. This Constitution was adopted in 1788 by all the States, except Rhode Island and North Carolina, both of which afterwards adopted it.
1793, Sept. 16th. Ipswich approves the President's proclamation for neutrality, while the European war lasts.
1798, April 2d. The town meet on the subject of pe-

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titioning Congress, that merchant vessels may be armed, and that the Stamp Act may be repealed.
1808, August 18th. A majority of the people here vote to send the following petition to Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States. It "humbly shows, that the inhabitants of this town have at all times, from its earliest settlement, manifested a respectful regard to the laws of the country, and practised and inculcated obedience to the constituted authorities; that, under the greatest pressure of calamities which the public good has been thought to require, they have remained peaceful and submissive, and that no regulation of government, however burdensome, has ever on this account been violated or evaded by any inhabitants of this town; that the laws of the United States, laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the country, have operated in a very grievous manner on all classes of our citizens; that farmers, mechanics, fishermen, and manufacturers have, in their turns, experienced and still experience their ill effects; and we cannot comtemplate their further continuance without most disquieting apprehensions; nor will we believe, that the regular expression of the wishes of a free people can be offensive to enlightened and patriotic rulers. Therefore, your petitioners beg leave to suggest, whether the great events which have lately taken place in Europe will not afford your Excellency an opportunity for relieving the people of this once prosperous country from their present embarrassed and distressed condition. And your petitioners believe, that a renewal of commercial intercourse between the United States and the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal and their colonies, would be productive of great advantage, by affording to us an opportunity of disposing of great quantitites of our surplus produce, and more particularly the article of fish now perishing on our hands. Wherefore, your petitioners, agreeably to the right which they enjoy by the constitution, which they, at all times and on all occasions, are ready and determined religiously to support, would respectfully pray, that the evils which they endure, in consequence of the embargo, may be removed, by a suspension, in whole or in part, of the operation of the laws laying the same, by virtue of the power by law vested in supreme executive; or that the power of convening Congress, given by the constitution to your Excellency, may be immediately exercised for the purpose of obtaining an object so important to the dearest interests

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of the people. And as in duty bound will pray, — in behalf of the town," — (Names of the committee.)
Sept. 2d. The following answer, of this date, was soon after received. "Your representation and request were received on the 1st instant, and have been considered with the attention due to every expression of the sentiments and feelings of so respectable a body of citizens. No person has seen with more concern than myself, the inconveniences brought on our country in general, by the circumstances of the times in which we live, — times to which the history of nations presents no parallel. For years we have been looking, as spectators, on our brethren of Europe, affected by all those evils which necessarily follow an abandonment of the moral duty, which binds men and nations together, connected with them in friendship and commerce. We have happily, so far, kept aloof from their calamitous conflicts, by a steady observance of justice towards all, by much forbearance and multiplied sacrifices. At length, however, all regard to the rights of others having been thrown aside, the belligerent powers have beset the highway of commercial intercourse with edicts, which, taken together, expose our commerce and mariners, under almost every destination, a prey to their fleets and armies. Each party, indeed, would admit our commerce with themselves, with the view of associating us in their war against the other. But we have wished war with neither. Under thses circumstances were passed the laws of which you complain, by those delegated to exercise the powers of legislation for you, with every sympathy of a common interest in exercising them faithfully. In reviewing these measures, therefore, we should advert to difficulties, out of which a choice was of necessity to be made. To have submitted our rightful commerce to prohibitions and tributary exactions from others, would have been to surrender our independence. To resist by arms was war, without consulting the state of things or the choice of the nation. The alternative, preferred by the legislature, of suspending a commerce, placed under such unexampled difficulties, besides saving to our citizens their property and our mariners to their country, has the peculiar advantage of giving time to the belligerent nations to revise a conduct as contrary to their interests, as it is to our rights. In the event of peace or suspension of hostilites between the belligerent powers of Europe, or such change in their measures respecting neutral

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commerce, as may render that of the United States sufficiently safe in the judgment of the President, he is authorized to suspend the embargo; but no peace or hostilites, no change of measures affecting neutral commerce is known to have taken place. The orders of England and the decrees of France and Spain, existing at the date of these laws, are still unrepealed, as far as we know. In Spain, indeed, a contest for the government appears to have arisen; but of its course or prospects we have no information, on which prudence would undertake a hasty change in our policy, even were the authority of the executive competent to such a decision. You desire, that, in this respect of power, Congress may be specially convened. It is unnecessary to examine the evidence of the character of the facts which are supposed to dictate such a call, because you will be sensible, on attention to dates, that the legal period of their meeting is as early as, in this extensive country, they could be fully convened by a special call. I should, with great willingness, have executed the wishes of the inhabitants of the town of Ipswich, had peace or a repeal of the obnoxious edicts, or other changes, produced the case, in which alone the laws have given me that authority; and so many motives of justice and interest lead to such changes, that we ought continually to expect them; but while these edicts remain, the legislature alone can prescribe the course to be pursued.
THOMAS JEFFERSON."
Nov. 7th. A majority vote, that the President's answer is not satisfactory.
1809, Feb. 6th. Resolves are passed, disapproving the embargo and the course of Congress, in strong terms, and giving a pledge to stand by the General Court. The political parties here stood thus; 346 against the national adminstration, and 173 for it. Throughout the country, the animosity between such parties was, and continued for several years, exceedingly and perilously bitter.
1812, June 5th. Voted to petition the General Court to alter the law, passed last session, for districting the Commonwealth to elect Counsellors and Senators, as unconstitutional, unequal, and unjust. June 25th. The town meet to consider "the present critical and alarming state of the public affairs of our country, now suffering under a grievous embargo and apparently with an unjust and unnecessary war." They vote to communicate with Boston on these subjects. July 13th.

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Four delegates are elected to sit in Convention, according to a proposal from Salem, with reference to the condition of the country. It is voted to approve the address of the House of Representatives, and to support the government of Massachusetts in all its constitutional measures for restoring peace. — Voted to approve the address of a minority in Congress to their constituents, against the war. A committee of correspondence is chosen.
1814, Feb. 9th. A memorial is voted for the Legislature, approving the Governor's communication and the answers of both Houses about the redress of political grievances.
1820, Oct. 16th. The Hon. John Heard and Mr. Nathaniel Wade are appointed delegates to meet in Convention, in Boston, third Wednesday of November, for revising the State Constitution.

COCKADES

These, as a mark of attachment to the national administration, being made of black ribbon with an eagle in the centre, and fastened on the side of the hat, were worn by some in 1797, and generally in 1798. As having the same signification, and also as a sign of mourning for Washington, they were very fashionable soon after his decease, and went down at the close of 1800.

PAY OF REPRESENTATIVES AND MAGISTRATES

181638. Every town is to pay its own deputies and magistrates. Each deputy is to have 2s. 6d. a day and each magistrate 3s. 6d., while in session.
1645. Ipswich and other towns are to pay the board of such persons, while convened, in cattle, wheat, malt, and barley.
1646. It is enacted by the General Court, that no more than a member and his horse shall be maintained. It seems from this, that Representatives may have had, while at Court,

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some of their families boarded and lodged at the public expense.
1684. As much was lost in measure by sending rates in produce from distant towns to Charlestown and Boston, the Legislature order, that the "salary men of the country" shall be paid out of the country rates where they live.
1692. Each Representative has 5s. a day.
1729. The town allow 6s. a day since the arrival of Governor Burnet.
1833. The present price, coming out of the State Treasury, is two dollars a day. If an alteration were made, so that each town should pay its Representatives, the House would lose much of its enormous and useless size.

VOTES FOR MAGISTRATES, &c.

181643. Indian beans are to be used in voting. The white, yea; the black, nay.
1648. They are required to be sealed up and forwarded to Boston.
1680. Indian corn is to be used and sealed up in a paper, containing the name of each candidate, and sent to Boston on election-day, when all freemen, who have not put in their corn, may do it in the Court-House, at eight o’clock in the morning. As well known, paper votes have for a long time been given for all officers.
1780, Sept. 4th. The first meeting in Ipswich to vote for Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Senators, since the Declaration of Independence, is held.
1788, Nov. 20th. The first votes given here for Representatives to Congress, and for Electors of President and Vice-President, are recorded. With regard to the qualifications of each voter, perhaps they are as restricted as the spirit of our Constitution allows. But every one knows, who has carefully watched the course of popular elections, that not unfrequently men, having neither character nor property to lose, under the influence of prejudice and passion, if not of liquor, and led on by some demagogue, cast their votes for officers unfit for any trust, and too often turn the scale against patriotic and worthy candidates.

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Here is one of the greatest perils to which our freedom is exposed, and on which there is reason to fear it may be wrecked and destroyed.

MILITARY CONCERNS

Though man is morally bound to be at peace with his fellow man, yet wars and bloodshed have accompanied his course all the way from Cain down to the present age. No doubt there have been cases, when individuals and nations had no alternative but either to fight or die. Still, in every warfare, wrong must be laid to one side or the other, if not to both. At the bar of Infinite Justice, it will appear that many contests, at the expense of human depravation, misery, and life, which hold their bright descriptions on the pages of history, were commenced in unprincipled ambition, or grovelling covetousness, or diabolical revenge, and are drawn in the darkest lines on the books of Omniscient Remembrance. Welcome to surviving philanthropists will be the day, when the instruments of death shall be converted into implements of husbandry, and when the benevolent Religion of the Gospel shall have full sway over the evil passions of mankind, and lead them to promote each other's safety and happiness.
FORTIFICATIONS AND WATCH-HOUSE. 181633, November. "Ordered, that when all the plantations in the Bay have done two days' work each at the Fort (in Boston), there shall be an order sent to Salem, Agawam, and Saugus, to send in their money for three days' work towards it for each man, except magistrates and ministers."
1634, March. The Assistant from Ipswich is to solicit subscriptions for a movable fort, to be in Boston. Sept. Every plantation is to send workmen or money, three days each, towards the Boston fort.
1637, March. Each town is to be supplied with a watch-house before the last of July.
51639, Feb. J. Winthrop, jr., is granted Castle Hill, with the reservation of what the town "shall need for the building of a fort."

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181640. The meeting-house here and in other places, is to be used for a watch-house.
1642, Sept. Owing to danger from Indians, each town is to provide a retreat for their wives and children.
51672, Feb. Some are paid for helping build a new fort here.
1696. The town have the fort near the First Parish meeting-house repaired.
1699, June 26th. It is voted, that the stones out of the fort be used in banking up the new meeting-house.
1703, March 3d. The town vote to repair the watch-house.
SOLDIERS, TRAINING, OFFICERS. 181634.Every trained soldier, pikeman, and others, must be equipped for service.
1635. Each company is to maintain its own officers.
1636. The militia here are attached to one of three regiments, which are all in the whole colony.
1637. Daniel Dennison is appointed Captain of Ipswich by the General Court. Training is to be eight times in a year.
321644. "The two counties of Essex and Norfolk are joined in one regiment," commanded by D. Dennison.
1645. Youth from ten to sixteen years are to be exercised with small guns, half-pikes, bows and arrows. Thomas Whittingham is confirmed as Lieutenant, and Thomas Howlett as Ensign, of the company here.
5Dec. 19th. The inhabitants of Ipswich agree to pay D. Dennison £24 7s. annually as their military leader.
181648. In every company some under-officer shall be appointed by the captain to "exercise such children, as by their parents’ or masters’ allowance shall resort to the training."
1652. No company is to have less than sixty-four privates, nor less than two drums. Each town is to have its military affairs ordered by a committee of magistrates and the three chief officers.
41653. John Appleton is confirmed as Lieutenant of the troop of horse for Essex Regiment.
181664. Thomas French is confirmed as Ensign, Thomas

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Burnam, Jacob Perkins, and Thomas Wait, as Serjeants, Thomas Hart and Francis Wainwright, as Corporals of the Ipswich company.
1668. John Appleton as Captain, John Whipple as Cornet, of Ipswich troop, are confirmed.
1675. Thomas Burnam made Ensign.
1676. John Whipple becomes Captain of the troop.
1680. There are to be three companies in this town.
1683. Samuel Appleton is appointed Captain, T. Burnam Lieutenant, Simon Stacey Ensign, of one company, — Daniel Eppes Captain, John Appleton Lieutenant, and Thomas Jacobs Ensign, of another, — John Andrews Lieutenant, and Wm. Goodhue, jr., Ensign, of a third at Chebacco. Oct. As Captain Whipple had died, Captain J. Appleton resumes command of the troop, Cornet John Whipple becomes Lieutenant, and Thomas Wade Cornet.
1689, July. T. Wade is elected Captain, J. Whipple Lieutenant, and John Whipple, jr., Quarter-Master of troop. Oct. Simon Stacey is confirmed as Lieutenant, and Nehemiah Jewett as Ensign, of the company on the north of the river, under Major Samuel Appleton.
1690. The companies of Ipswich, Rowley, Gloucester, Wenham, Topsfield, and Boxford are to form one of three regiments in Essex county.
1691. Samuel Ingalls is confirmed as Lieutenant, and Robert Kinsman as Quarter-Master of troop under T. Wade.
1753. Captains, Lieutenants, and Ensigns of the militia, continue to wear gold lace on their hats, with red stockings and breeches of the same color, on parade. The Serjeant continued till the Revolution to go with a drummer, who beat at each corner, and to give notice that the company would meet for training on such a day, if fair, and, if not, the next fair day.
451775, March 13th. Those on the alarm list, in the Hamlet, chose John Whipple, jr., Captain, John Thompson 2d Lieutenant, and Jonathan Lamson Ensign.
1798, Aug. The officers of Ipswich Regiment agree to wear cockades and uniform on Sabbaths and public occasions.

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1833. Two militia companies, one infantry company, and part of a troop of horse, compose the present military force.
ARTILLERY COMPANY. 181645, May 14th. On petition of S. Bradstreet, D. Dennison, J. Whittingham and others, a company, composed of persons belonging to Ipswich, Newbury, Rowley, Salisbury, and Hampton, are incorporated to improve in military tactics. This was in imitation of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company.
WARDS, WATCHES, GUARDS, AND ALARMS. 181634. Ipswich, with other towns, is required to send its quota of men for a ward in Boston, while any ships ride there. A watch of two is to be kept in every plantation during night.
221637, March 9th. Because of danger from Indians, a watch is to be kept in each town, and a ward on the Sabbath, and no person is allowed to travel alone above one mile from his house, except where houses are near together, without arms.
181642. "Besides the country alarum there shall be one for each town; a musket shall be discharged on alarm, to all centinels, who shall answer by going to the houses and crying 'Arm! arm!'"
51643. T. Howlett is allowed 5s. for two loads of wood for watches.
1645, May. Every town is to have a guard set a half hour after sunset, to consist of a pikeman and musketeer. Aug. Each town is to prepare for an attack from the Indians, to keep a daily guard on the outskirts and have scouts range the woods.
1675, Oct. The inhabitants are to be disposed of, as need may be, in one or more garrisons, to defend themselves when invaded.
1676, Feb. The soldiers of every town are ordered to scout and ward to prevent the skulking and lurking of the enemy about it, and to give notice of approaching danger. It is also ordered, that the brush in the high-ways and other places be cut up. The watch is not to disperse till sunrise, when the scouts go out.
1689. A ward is to be kept in each town and to walk the rounds in time of worship, to guard against Indians.
51775, May 15th. Voted, that the Town Watch, of four

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persons on guard, be continued; that the watch on Castle Hill, of two men, give notice if the enemy come by water to seize sheep and cattle. Voted, that a suitable quantity of tar be obtained to be set a-fire on a beacon erected for this purpose, so that the town may be alarmed in the night, and that the flag be hoisted in the daytime to give notice of the enemy.
AMMUNITION, ARMS, AND ACCOUTREMENTS. 181634. D. Dennison and N. Easton have charge of powder at Ipswich. This town is to have its share of muskets, bandoleers, and rests, recently arrived, and to have the use of two sakers and a drake, for which they are to provide carriages.
591635. As part of the Colony’s military stores, lately received from Mr. Wilson in England, Ipswich has eight swords.
181639. This town is to have two barrels of powder, and to sell it to those who have muskets at 2s. a pound, and return the money to the Colony Treasurer.
1642. Ipswich is to have twelve saker-bullets.
1643. May. Arms are to be brought to the meeting-house on Lord’s day.
1645. Each company is to have two thirds muskets and the rest pikes. The pikemen are to wear corselets and headpieces.
1648. Each soldier is required to have a stone fitted to the bore of his musket.
1649. The Selectmen of each town are to provide for fifty soldiers, one barrel of powder, one hundred and fifty pounds of musket-bullets, and one quarter of a hundred-weight of match. Match continued for a considerable period to supply the place of flints in New England and Europe.
1666. Every pikeman is to be furnished with corselet, buff or quilted coat.
1681. A magazine is kept in the meeting-house.
1683. Halberds are and have been used here.
1691. The town agree to supply themselves with powder and flints. This is the first instance known of flints being named on the records of Ipswich.
1696. The town vote to purchase three field-pieces.
1697. Troopers use carbines.

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1702. The Selectmen are to have a room on the beams, by the clock of the meeting-house, for powder.
1756, Nov. The town vote £50 for powder and other military stores.
1777, Aug. Voted, that the Selectmen buy this town’s proportion of fire-arms, gun-locks, flints, and lead.
1814, Sept. 14th. Voted, that the Committee of Safety superintend military affairs and purchase what is needed.
1815, May 8th. Voted, that the remnant of guns burnt in the shop of Michael Brown be given him.
We perceive that the ancient equipments differed considerably from those of our day. Should we now behold a company fitted out, as they were formerly, they would be a novel and curious sight.
COLORS. These contained the cross, as in England, with a short interruption, from 1635 till the Revolution.
1776, April 11th. The General Court of our State, order, that the colors of their vessels of war shall be white with a green pine tree, and an inscription "Appeal to Heaven." Soon after the Declaration of Independence, the thirteen stripes were introduced, as our national flag. An act of Congress, in 1818, says, that this flag shall be of thirteen stripes alternately red and white, with a star in a field of blue for every State in the Union, and a star to be added for every new State.
POWDER-HOUSE. 1792, May 30th. voted to have a brick powder-house built. This was done before Nov. 2d, and cost £33.
EXERCISE-HOUSE. 1774, Nov. 21st. Voted the use of the land, to the eastwardly end of the Town House, for a building by subscribers, where they may meet for military discipline.
EXPEDITIONS, CAPTIVES, WOUNDED, KILLED, COMPENSATION, AND SUPPLIES. 18181637, April 10th. Of one hundred and sixty men, going against the Pequods, the quota of Ipswich is seventeen. May 17th. Of fifty men for the same service, this town is to raise six. Wm. Fuller is appointed gunsmith in this expedition. 60July 13th. Francis Wainwright, a young man of this place, pursues some Pequods, expends his ammunition and they turn upon him. He breaks his gun over them and brings two of their heads to the camp. 34John Wedgwood is wounded in the abdomen and taken by some of

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the Pequods. Thomas Sherman receives a wound in the neck from them.
51639. The committee here for the Pequod soldiers, make grants of land from two to ten acres, to the following individuals: Wm. Whitred, Andrew Story, John Burnam, Robert Cross, Palmer Tingley, Wm. Swynden, Francis Wainwright, Robert Filbrick, John Andrews, and Robert Castell. Edward Lumas was one of such soldiers, and, long after this, had six acres of land allowed him by Ipswich for his service.
221642, Sept. 1st. By warrant to Ipswich, Rowley, and Newbury, for disarming Pasconaway, who lived at Merrimack, these towns sent forty men next day, being Sabbath. This Sachem was not found, but his son was taken. Such an order was executed, because there was suspicion of a general conspiracy of the Indians against the English. The following, no doubt, refers to this expedition.
51643, Dec. 4th. "It is agreed that each soldier, for his service to the Indians, shall be allowed 12d. a day, (allowing for the Lord’s day in respect of the extremity of the weather), and the officers double." The number of these soldiers was twenty. They were out three days.
181653, Aug. General Dennison orders out twenty-seven men from Ipswich and Rowley, as a scouting party, to discover whether the report was true, that thousands of Indians were assembled at Piscataqua. This detachment was gone from Friday morning to Monday night. Each private was allowed 1s., the serjeant 2s., and each of two troopers 2s. 6d. a day.
51668. Edward Thomas, who had been in service against the Indians, is granted six acres of land.
181672, Aug. 19th. General Dennison writes to the Governor, that the enemy had passed the Merrimack; that he was sending up fifty men at night under Captain John Appleton to Andover. He spoke of his brother Bradstreet’s things, as brought thence because of the enemy, and that great alarm prevailed.
1673, Dec. 10th. Ipswich is to raise its quota of one hundred men for Essex county to oppose the Dutch.

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191675. The following persons, who had belonged to Ipswich, were killed by Indians. Aug. At Squakeheage, Edward Coburn. Sept. 8th Thomas Scott at the same place. 18th. Thomas Manning, Jacob Wainwright, Caleb Kimball, Samuel Whittredge, and others, at Muddy Brook, under Captain Lathrop. 19th. Benjamin Tappan. Oct. 10th. Freegrace Norton, serjeant, and John Petts or Pettis, at Hatfield. 61Oct. 7th. Thomas Wilson is allowed £1 for what he lost by the enemy at Quabog. 34Dec. 19th. The company from Ipswich has three killed and twenty-two wounded in the great battle with the Indians. Luke Perkins states, that a company, in which he was this year, went out against the enemy, and they returned unharmed.
181676. Of six hundred infantry and cavalry, marching to resist the enemy, Ipswich supplies its proportion. Robert Dutch has clothes and arms injured by fire in service against Indians. May 5th. This town is to raise its part of eighty men, for Essex county, for an expedition of six days. 62July 8th. A detachment from Ipswich had recently been up to Salisbury in pursuit of the enemy. 18Oct. 11th. Of seventy soldiers, as the quota of Essex, for an expedition to the eastward, Ipswich is to have its part. John Cogswell, jr., is a prisoner among the Indians.
1689, July 2d. Of three hundred men to be raised in the colony, this town is to have its proportion. 63This year "One Benedict Pulsifer gave the Mastif (Indian) a blow with the edge of his broadaxe upon the shoulder, upon which they fell to it with a vengeance, and fired their guns on both sides till some of each party were slain." 18Aug. 29th. Ipswich horse are ordered to Haverhill, as one place of rendezvous for forces going to meet the enemy.
1690, May 14th. This town is to raise its part of twenty men in Essex Middle, to strengthen Albany and pursue the French and Indians; and, June 4th, its part of thirty-one more in the same regiment, and of four hundred in the Province. 19th. Nathaniel Rust is appointed Quarter-Master for the Canada expedition. July 17th, Ipswich is to raise its quota of fifteen, and, 30th, of four hundred and eight recruits from Essex Middle Regiment, which are to be under Major

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Samuel Appleton. Sept. 30th. Col. B. Church writes, that, about the 19th, one Dicks, of Chebacco, was killed near Casco.
1691, June 2d. This town is to have its proportion of fourteen men from Essex Middle, who are to march for Wells. Nov. 25th. Robert, son of Rev. John Hale, now residing here, writes to his relatives in England, "Ipswich is still preserved, but, as most other towns in this colony, has lost many of its most warlike men by war and sickness."
631692, July 17th. As, for two days past, several persons of Gloucester declared, that they saw French and Indians skulking about a garrison, Major S. Appleton sends down sixty men to defend them. Rev. John Emerson, of Gloucester, in speaking some time afterwards of this appearance of the enemy, considered it as supernatural.
1695, March 19th. Lieutenant-Governor Wm. Stoughton sends orders to Symonds Epes for a man of his company to be impressed and sent to York in place of Archelaus Adams, whose time is out.
1697, Feb. 5th. He writes to the same officer to have his regiment ready for marching to any point, which may be attacked by the enemy. 5April 3d. William, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Wade, is killed at sea in a battle with the French. 20Dec. 17th. Abraham Foster, a soldier, wounded in the public service, is to receive £8 out of the public treasury "for smart money."
1700, March 16th. Ipswich is to furnish its quota of ninety men from Essex regiments, thirty of which are to be posted at Wells, fifteen at York, fifteen at Kittery, ten at Amesbury, and twenty at Haverhill, to guard against surprise from the enemy.
1710. Wm. Cogswell is killed by Indians.
1720. Samuel Clark, crippled by the Indians, is allowed £10 out of the Province Treasury.
1737. John Hobbs, crippled by hard service and sufferings in the late Indian War, and incapable of labor, is allowed by the Province 40s. annually for five years.
1747, April 23d. Joseph Crecey petitions the General Court, that he may be paid for taking care of sick soldiers at Cape Breton.
1755, March 20th, and May 25th. In presence of part of

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the soldiers enlisted at Ipswich to march against the enemy at Nova Scotia and Crown Point, Mr. Wigglesworth preached two sermons, one on each of the above dates. Among these men of the Hamlet, were Amos Howard, who lost an arm; Elijah Maxey, who had a hand wounded so that it became useless; Antipas Dodge, John Jones, and Joseph Simmonds, all three slain at Lake George. April 21st. Doctor John Calef is engaged to go with the regiment of Colonel Plaisted of Salem, against Crown Point.
1758. Before the surrender of Cape Breton, a party of men from Ipswich in a schooner, were attacked there by French and Indians and were forced to retreat. After they got off, they found several hundred shot in their vessel’s quarters.
1759, June 16th. Philemon How, of West Ipswich, dies of a fever, in the army at Louisbourg. In the expedition against Canada, Captain Stephen Whipple of the Hamlet is wounded, Nathaniel Burnam, first Lieutenant, and Stephen Low, second Lieutenant, both of Chebacco, are slain. Abraham Hobbs, of the Hamlet, was at the taking of Quebec, and heard General Wolfe say to his men, when the French were near them, "Now, my boys, do your best."
51760, March 13th. The town vote, "that such private soldiers, as are in the war, exclusive of tradesmen and carpenters, shall be excused from their poll-tax."
1774, Dec. 26th. A committee contract with minute-men, who may enlist agreeably to proposals of the Provincial Congress.
101775, June 17th. Jesse Story, of Chebacco, is killed in Bunker Hill fight. 37Sept. 15th. A detachment from Cambridge, on their march to Canada, under Benedict Arnold, pass through Ipswich.
101776. Jan. 4th, Thomas Emmerson Cole; 11th, Jonathan Cogswell 3d; in the summer, Wm. Jones; Aug. 8th, David Goodhue, die in the army: in the fall, Joseph Marshall, jr., was killed by a cannon ball at Lake Champlain: — all of Chebacco. This year Joseph Lufkin, of the Hamlet, in the western army, was killed by a tree, which fell on him and broke his neck, while the troops were cutting wood, preparatory to their encampment for the night. June 25th. Of 5000 men ordered out, the quota of Ipswich is ten.

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51777, Jan. 21st. A committee report the service of soldiers belonging to this town, and money paid, from the battle of Lexington till Nov. 28th; namely, 1775, men for six weeks, eight months’ men at Cambridge, sea-coast men; 1776, eight-weeks’ men, men in the Continental army, men four months at Dorchester, sea-coast men, men to Crown Point, men at New York two months; — whole amount, £1737 5s. January 24th. The town vote £1000 for recruits going to war. February 27th. In view of the resolve of the General Court for one seventh part of the males, from 16 to 60, to join the Continental army for three years or during the war, a committee report, that conditional sums be paid yearly, or unconditional sums for three years; first year, £6 besides other pay; second, £8; third, £10. The men who engage here on these terms, if killed or dying with sickness while in service, shall have such money go to their heirs; and £18, absolutely, for three years. April 18th. Voted £18, besides Continental and State pay, to every able-bodied man who will enlist three years or during the war. May 2d. Voted £16 to each man who will serve till January 10th, and, if enlisting for the same time, 40s. more. May. Jeremiah White of Chebacco dies in the army at Albany. August 18th. Voted, that the committee hire men, who shall be called to serve during the war. Sept. 17th. Voted, that the Selectmen supply the families of soldiers, who are in the Continental service. Sept. 19th. Joseph Burnham of Chebacco dies of a wound in the battle of Stillwater. Nov. 24th. Voted £1200 to pay for the past hire of soldiers.
1778, Jan. 19th. By report of a committee, men had marched hence for Providence in April, and others to reinforce the army in August. March 3d. The Selectmen are to make up this town’s quota for the Continental army. April 6th. £200 are voted for families of soldiers. April 20th. Of troops ordered out, Ipswich is to find twenty-three. May 28th. Voted £600 for families of soldiers. This year James Rust, a prisoner at Halifax, Stephen Kent and Jonathan Andrews, soldiers at Albany, Abraham and Isaac Jones, Israel Andrews, Nathaniel Emerson, and Abijah Story, a black man, of the army, all of Chebacco, died.
1779, June 28th. Voted £12,000, O.T., to hire recruits now called out.
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