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that the trustees of the Burley Education Fund, have the care of this and all other sums given for a like purpose. 1826, April 3d. Five trustees of this fund state, that they have been incorporated, and have received of Mr. Burley’s executors five hundred dollars, and that they have invested this money. Such a donation betokens feelings of attachment to the place of one’s nativity, which we love to perceive wherever the trace of man is to be seen. It is a nucleus around which we should be glad to see much golden fruit gathering and enlarging.
ACADEMY. This building is fifty-six feet long, thirty-five wide, and twenty-two high. It was erected by proprietors. Its cost was four thousand dollars, including land. Immediately after its being finished, Rev. Hervey Wilbur occupied it, as instructor, from April 1826, for one year. He was assisted by a preceptress. He was succeeded by James W. Ward, who continued from May, 1827, to March 1828.
Miss Zilpah P. Grant, assisted by Miss Mary Lyon, took the academy to educated young ladies, April 23d, 1828. The average number of scholars, in 1833, was one hundred and forty-two. In some terms there have been nearly two hundred. There are eight assistant teachers. The board for each pupil, inclusive of washing, fuel, and lights, is one dollar and seventy-five cents, and the tuition ten dollars for the term of sixteen weeks. Young ladies, whose qualifications are sufficient, receive a diploma at the public exhibition, signed by Miss Grant and the Trustees. The advantages of physical, intellectual, moral, and religious education are enjoyed, in no common degree, at this seminary. The government here, though based on affection, is both energetic and successful. Great pains are taken to have the scholars thorough in whatever studies they pursue. To this end private examinations are frequently held, to the high satisfaction of competent judges. The principal and her assistants have not labored in vain, nor spent their strength for naught. Benevolent and magnanimous in their views, motives, and exertions, they have had the satisfaction of perceiving many who have gone from under their tuition, moving in an extensive sphere of usefulness. The experiment tried in this Academy, is a fair indication of the advance, which females might make in knowledge, had they some institution, well accommodated with buildings, books, and apparatus. It is matter of surprise, that no such place has been provided by

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the benevolent, where the talented poor and pious, as well as others, might have greater privileges of learning, than they now possess. While one college after another has been put in operation by charities of the beneficent, for the young men, which is as it should be, proportionable efforts have not been made for young women. Justice to these, as well as compliance with the improvements of the age, and with the necessities of the church, require that such deficiency should be soon supplied.
SABBATH SCHOOLS. Among the means of improving the young, and for rendering them useful in time and happy in eternity, these schools hold a prominent rank. One, of the First Parish, began in 1816, had one hundred scholars in 1827, two hundred in 1832, and three hundred and eighty-four volumes in 1833; of the South Parish, began in 1816, had seventy scholars in 1827, two hundred in 1832, and volumes four hundred and fifty; of the Methodist society, began in 1826, had one hundred and thirty scholars in 1833, and three hundred and ninety volumes.
LYCEUM. This commenced in 1830, and lasted two years.
TOWN LIBRARIES. Ipswich Social Library contains three hundred volumes, and the religious Library three hundred.
NEWSPAPER. The Ipswich Journal was commenced July, 1827, by John H. Harris, and continued to Aug. 1828.

HARVARD COLLEGE

1644. The Deputies and Elders of all towns, are desired to use their influence, so that every family allow one peck of corn, or 12d. for this University.
1652. The General Court request, that for raising up suitable Rulers and Elders, a person in every town solicit subscriptions to aid charity scholars at Cambridge.
1664. The rate of Ipswich for the College is £7 6s. 7d., and the same next year.
1677, May 23d. The General Court send a letter to this town, desiring them to subscribe for the new brick building at the College, begun two years ago, but not finished during the war for want of money; the old edifice being partly fallen down.
1679. Subscriptions for this object are to be collected here.

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1681. A committee are to gather up what was behind for the College. £19 15s. in grain is put on board John Dutch's sloop, namely, seventy-eight bushels and a half of corn, and thirty-one and three quarters of malt, for Cambridge.

GRADUATES FROM IPSWICH OF
HARVARD COLLEGE
1721
1723
Rev. Nathaniel Rogers
Rev. Josiah Dennis
1642

1645
1649
1652
1653
1656

1659



1660
1663

1665
1669

1671
1684
1685

1686

1687
1689
1693
1695
1699
1700
1702
1703
1707

1709

1710
1711
1712
1713
1717
1718
1720
Doct. Samuel Bellingham
Rev. Wm. Hubbard
Doct. James Ward
John Rogers, Pres. of H.C.
Rev. Joseph Rowlandson
Richard Hubbard, Esq.
Robert Paine, preacher
Rev. John Emerson
Hon. Nathaniel Saltonstall
Ezekiel Rogers
Rev. Samuel Cheever
Rev. Samuel Belcher
Wm. Whittingham
Samuel Cobbet
Samuel Symonds
Samuel Bishop
Samuel Eppes
Hon. Daniel Eppes
John Norton
Rev. John Rogers
Rev. John Dennison
John White
Francis Wainwright, Esq.
Daniel Rogers, Esq.
Rev. Nathaniel Rogers
Wm. Paine
Rev. John Wade
Doct. John Perkins
Rev. Francis Goodhue
Rev. Jeremiah Wise
Rev. Wm. Burnham
Rev. Benjamin Choate
Francis Wainwright, merchant
Henry Rust
Col. John Wainwright
Daniel Ringe, merchant
John Dennison, lawyer
Rev. John Rogers
Rev. Nathaniel Appleton, D.D.
Benj. Crocker, preacher
Henry Wise, merchant
Fran. Cogswell, merchant
Rev. Joseph Whipple
1725






1728
1730
1735
1737
1738

1742


1744
1745
1749
1751
1752
1758

1761

1763
1766
1768
1772


1774
1777
1778
1782
1784
1786


1787
1788
Doct. Joseph Manning
Tho's Diamond, merchant
Rev. Daniel Rogers
Rev. Daniel Rogers
Doct. Samuel Rogers
Josiah Smith
Thomas Norton, lawyer
Doct. Joseph Wise
Rev. John Dennis
Rev. Aaron Smith
Rev. Edward Cheever
Edward Eveleth
Daniel Staniford, teacher
John Wainwright, preacher
Col. John Dennison
Andrew Burley, Esq.
John Annable, teacher
Rev. Nehemiah Porter
Rev. Ezekiel Dodge
Doct Samuel Eppes
Doct. Sam. Wigglesworth
Joseph How, teacher
Rev. John Treadwell
Col. Edward Wigglesworth
Adam Porter
Rev. Samuel Perley
Ebenezer Potter, teacher
Rev. Joseph Cummings
Dan. Staniford, preacher
Doct. Samuel Smith
Thomas Burnam, teacher
Doct. Josiah Smith
Nathaniel Dodge
Nathan Dane, LL. D.
Nathaniel Rogers, teacher
George Stacey
Dudley Hubbard, lawyer
Porter Lummus, lawyer
Rev. Nathaniel Howe
Ephraim Kendall
Rev. Oliver Dodge
Doct. John D. Treadwell

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1790
Rev. David Smith
FROM DARTMOUTH COLLEGE

1794

1795

1796
Daniel Staniford, teacher
Rev. Joseph McKean
Joseph Perkins, lawyers
Amos Choate, Register of Deeds
John Heard, lawyer
Rev. Samuel Dana
1788

1791
1793
1819

Joseph Dana, Professor
Rev. Daniel Dana, D.D.
Rev. Nathan Bradstreet
Mark Newman, book-seller
Rufus Choate, lawyer

1798
Jona. Ingersoll, teacher
FROM BROWN UNIVERSITY

1802
1806
1810
Nathaniel Lord, Reg. of Probate
Levi Frisbie, Professor
Jo. G. Cogswell, Professor
John Dudley Andrews, lawyer
1772
1776
1777

Rev. Joseph Appleton
Rev. Ebenezer Dutch
Francis Quarles, preacher


Rev. Edward Andrews
FROM BOWDOIN COLLEGE

1812
1818
Joseph Swasey Farley
Geo. W. Heard, merchant
Doct. Geo. Choate
1813
1831

Nathaniel D. Appleton, lawyer
John Patch

1825
Nathaniel J. Lord, lawyer
FROM AMHERST COLLEGE
1828
Joseph Hale
1832
Otis P. Lord

There is considerable number more, who graduated from Harvard College before 1725, and who are supposed to have belonged to Ipswich. But as we have no positive proof of this, they have been omitted. No doubt, as the preceding members of various classes took their first degree, different expectations were indulged as to their course and reputation. Their life, as well as that of scholars in general, has shown that the anticipations in reference to them, while young, have not been altogether realized. While the promise, whether large or small, given by some in their outset, has been more than redeemed, it has not been so with others. In all such experience, one truth is evident, that no talents will elevate to true greatness without steady and virtuous effort.

MANUFACTURES

In proportion as these flourish in any place, so does its prosperity abound. They are arts essential to the comfort of society and should never be frowned on so long as they are useful. The too prevalent inclination to hold them in low repute is erroneous, and calculated to keep them from the advancement which they should make, and from being so profitable as they might be. We are told of a young Roman, who was made by his

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enemies to take a seat which they considered a degraded one, and who said, “It is not the seat which honors the man, but the man the seat.” So with any honest occupation. It is not the trade which dignifies the mechanic, but he, if worthy, who dignifies his trade. It is very probable that some of the following trades were practised here before the time of their being seen on record, and that part of them were more extensively carried on than appears from the list.
Grist-Mills. 1635. R. Saltonstall has leave to set up a mill, with the right, if the town shall need another, to erect it if he choose.
1636. Toll at mills was one sixteenth of the grain, which still continues to be so.
1687. Nehemiah Jewett is allowed to have a mill on the south side of Egypt River.
1692. Thomas Boreman has leave for one on Labor-in-vain Creek.
1693. John Burnam, jr., has liberty to set a mill on Chebacco River, at the launching-place.
1695. John and Francis Wainwright are to have one near Joseph Clarke’s house.
1696. Edmund and Anthony Potter and Abraham Tilton, jr., have permission to set a mill on Mile Brook, near the house of John Potter.
1697. John Adams, sen. and jr., and Michael Farley, have leave for one.
1715. Robert Calef is allowed to have another at the Falls in Ipswich River.
1833. There are three runs of stone in two different buildings, for grist-mills.
Saw-Mills. 1656. Voted that there be a saw-mill on Chebacco River, and liberty to cut timber, if one-fifteenth of what is sawed there be allowed to the town, and that no timber be cut within three miles and a half of the meeting-house, and the inhabitants be charged no more than four per cent.
1665. Jonathan Wade is to have one on the same river.
1667. Thomas Burnam has a like privilege, near the Falls, so as not to injure Mr. Wade’s.
1671. Wm. Story has permission to have a mill on Chebacco River.
1682. Jonathan Wade is granted a site there at the Falls.

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1687. John, son of Thomas Burnam, has leave to move his mill on Chebacco River, so that it may be near G. Story’s.
1833. There are two saw-mills in Ipswich.
Fulling-Mills. 1675. John Whipple is to have one at the Small Falls.
1677. Richard Shatswell is allowed to have one. But as he did not comply with the conditions of his grant, he is desired, 1681, to take away his dam.
1687. Nicholas Wallis has leave for a mill.
1692. Joseph Calef has a similar grant.
1693. He, and Thomas and Andrew Potter, are allowed to place one on Mile Brook.
1697. John Adams, sen. and jr., and Michael Farley, are to have another.
1833. There is one fulling and carding mill in town. — The business of it is much less than formerly.
Clothier. 1727. Samuel Stacey, for accommodating him to carry on the clothier’s trade, is granted land for a house, fronting Mr. Farley’s.
Hemp-Mill. 1657. Richard Shatswell has leave to set up a mill at the Falls, for the breaking of hemp.
Wind-Mill. 1677. A mill of this kind, is mentioned, as having previously existed. It was on the hill which bears its name.
Basket-Maker. 1639. Six acres of land are granted to Thomas Bridan “to plant osiers.”
Tanneries. 1634. Nicholas Easton, a tanner
1641. Thomas Clarke has leave to set down two tan-vats by the river.
1734. Thomas Brown had begun a tan-yard at the west end of the town, for one of his sons.
1832. About 10,000 hides are tanned, which bring 25,250 dollars; sold in Essex county; employ ten men at one dollar and twenty cents a day each, and consume ninety cords of bark.
1833. There are three tanneries.
Curriers. 1638. Nathaniel Bishop.
1665. Henry Keerse has liberty to settle here and work at his trade, as a currier.
Leather-Dressers and Wool-Pullers. 1833 Two Establishments.
Malt-works. As the making of malt was an extensive

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business at Ipswich, England, it would be expected, that some of its inhabitants who emigrated hither, would engage in such employment.
1641, Dec. “Mr. Appleton hath liberty to have a malt-house ready by 1st of April, next, and to malt such corne as shall be brought to him from the people of this town, at such rates as shall be thought equal for him to have. And no man (except for himself) is to have made any of old wheat for the space of five years.”
1670. Voted that walnut wood may be felled for the malt kilns, so as to dry malt for this year as formerly.
1696. As John Low had done making malt, James Burnam is allowed to have a malt-house near the old gravel-pit. In the preceding works oat-meal was prepared in large quantities. As beer became superseded by cider and ardent spirits, such works had less employment, and finally ceased after long service.
Brewery. 1663. John Paine is allowed to set up a brew-house and warehouse, by the water side near John Layton’s house. The last brewery in this town, which had been in operation several years, ceased in 1800.
Saltpetre. 1642. As there is great danger from foreign foes, each town is to have a house for making saltpetre. Edmund Gardner is appointed to see that this order is complied with in Ipswich.
1666. Richard Woody of Boston, and Henry Russel of Ipswich, had been preparing to make saltpetre, for which they are empowered to take materials and to have carts pressed by paying damages.
1667. Four persons are designated to see, that every family comply with the order of the General Court for making this article.
1776. Line Brook parish vote, that Daniel Chapman, of Boxford, shall have the dirt under their meeting-house, to make saltpetre. This was considerably manufactured at the Hamlet in the first of the Revolution. It was made on the farm of President Holyoke’s last wife. When waited on to know if she would consent, that her oak wood should be cut down to help make it, she earnestly replied, “It is for liberty, take as much of the wood as you want.” Saltpetre then brought 7s. 6d. per lb. at first, but fell to 3s.

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Salt-Works. 1652. “Granted Moses Pengry a parcel of land by the warehouse, below Obadiah Wood’s fence, to set up his salt pans and works, and fence in his wood; also, liberty to fell wood out of the swamp near the town for his use.”
1769. The town vote £8 to assist James Hudson to carry on the salt-works which he has lately erected.
1777. Rev. N. Whitaker, of Salem, was granted, by the proprietors, a piece of marsh on Jeffrey’s Neck, for salt-works. He did not set them up.
1830. Such works are begun by a company on Plumb Island. A creek is closed up to supply salt water. Vats are made in the ground without any covering. The water is raised by wind-mills, twenty or thirty feet and let fall through a quantity of brush wood, into the vats. The plan was unsuited to a climate like ours, and totally failed. Much consequent loss was sustained.
Rope-Maker. 1648. Simon Thompson.
Sail-Maker. 1833. One.
Coopers. 1639. Samuel Boreman.
1649. “Ordered that no person shall transport out of town, staves or casks made of white-oak, taken off from the Common.”
1672. Shoreborn Wilson.
1833. Three.
Gunsmiths. 1635. Wm. Fuller.
1685. Voted “that Thomas Manning, gunsmith, of Salem, may be an inhabitant, and carry on his trade.”
Carpenters. 1633. Thomas Howlett.
1658. Walter Roper.
1661. Wm. Wildes and Ezekiel Woodward and others. Ipswich has been noted for its many and skilful carpenters.
1833. Twenty-six.
Wheelwrights. 1638. Richard Kimball, jr.
1685. “Granted land on Rock Hill to Thomas Fuller for a shop to make wheels.”
1833. Four.
Hatters. 1692. Samuel Wood.
1833. Three.
Glovers. 1690. Nathaniel Rust.
1778. John Chapman, succeeded by his apprentices, P. Rust and B. Averill.

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Cordwainers. 1664. Wm. Buckley.
1831. 17,000 pair of shoes made annually, — $15,640, — employing one hundred and eighty-one hands. 3,200 pair of boots, — $9,600, — occupying twelve workmen.
1833. Fourteen permanent boot and shoe makers, who hire a considerable number as journeymen.
Glazier. 1664. John Brown, jr.
1833. Painters and glaziers, four.
Tailors. 1647. John Annable.
1678. Thomas Clark.
1833. Two men tailors, besides females.
Weavers. 1647. John Dennison.
1678. Thomas Lull.
Bakers. 1638. Thomas Emerson.
1833. One male baker.
Smiths. 1667. “Granted the two smiths liberty to fell wood for coaling, three miles off from the town.”
1682. All smiths in town have leave to cut down pine trees at Castle Neck to make coals.
1833. Seven.
Tin-Makers. 1833. Two.
Soap-Makers. 1678. Granted Nathaniel Brown ten rods of land for a building to make ashes and soap.
1833. One soap and candle maker.
Brick-Yards. 1683. Thomas Day had one.
1687. Andrew Burley is granted land for another at Jeffrey’s Neck.
Masons. 1833. Three.
Lime. 1770. This article had long been made in several parts of the town from clam-shells. Cart-loads of these shells were brought from the shores where they were left after the bait was taken out. Then they were put into kilns, at the bottom of which were apertures. Layers of wood and shells were alternately placed in the kiln. When the former was fired and consumed, the latter were left, as a powder, which was run through a sieve. After stone lime came into use, that of shells was dispensed with.
Ship-building. 1668, March 19th. “One acre of ground near Mr. Cogswell’s farm is granted to inhabitants of Ipswich, for a yard to build vessels, for the use of the inhabitants, and to employ workmen for that end.” This land was in Chebacco.

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1676. Edward Randolph, in writing home to England, mentions this town as a place for ship-building.
1734, March 20th. Thomas Lord is granted land near Wm. Hunt’s, on the south side of the river for a ship-yard. There is a tradition that the first square-sterned vessel built in Ipswich, was at Treadwell’s Island, one hundred and fifty years since.
1833. There is one ship-yard.
Corn-stalk Molasses. 1776. As West India molasses was very scarce on account of the war, several persons erect mills to grind corn-stalks. The juice of these was boiled down till it came to the consistence of molasses. Thus prepared, it had a tartish taste. It was better for puddings, than for any other culinary use.
1778. A load of it is carried from the Hamlet to a Salem distillery, where it yields nearly as much spirit as the same quantity of foreign molasses. Such a substitute for sweetening lasted till the close of the war. It was common in various parts of New England, and was an object of satire in one of the English songs.
Distillery. This was set up for distilling rum from molasses, about 1750, and ceased operation in 1830.
Clothing. 1641. Heads of families are required to employ their children and servants in manufacturing wild hemp, plentiful all over the country.
1645. As woollen clothes are scarce, each town is ordered to increase its sheep.
1654. As a similar scarcity existed, no sheep are to be transported, and none killed under two years old.
1656. The Selectmen are to divide their towns into classes of five, six, and ten, and appoint a class-leader, for the purpose of spinning. They are to assess each family a quarter, half, or whole spinner, according to its other occupation. Each family, which can furnish one spinner, shall spin for thirty weeks in a year, three lbs. of linen, cotton, and woollen, (monthly,) and so proportionably, for a half or quarter spinner, on fine of 12d. a month for each pound short. The Commons are to be cleared for sheep. The seed of hemp and flax is to be saved.
1792, March 13th. The town vote that Doct. John Manning have land for building a woollen manufactory. While this was erecting, some workmen designed for it were employed in the old county house.

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1794. Doct. Manning has an additional grant for the same object. This year the factory went into operation, and ceased in 1800. Coarse clothes and blankets were made here. They afforded but little, if any profit.
Cotton Factory. 1827, June 19th. Joseph Farley has leave to fill up the town way, as a watering-place, between the lace factory and his saw-mill, because he is about to erect a new dam and a manufactory where his saw-mill is. This manufactory was erected of stone, in 1828 and 1829. It is owned by a company of Ipswich. It commenced operations in 1830. In 1832 it had 3000 spindles and sixty looms. It spun No. 30 to 32 yarn, used 80,000 lbs. of cotton, made 450,000 yards of cloth annually, worth from nine and a half to ten cents. It employs on an average eighteen males and sixty-three females.
Machinists. 1833. Five, besides those in the cotton factory.
Cabinet-ware. 1832. There were eight shops, employing eighteen hands, who made 422 bureaus, — $5,064, — in a year. Besides the time spent in making these articles, one-third more was taken up in custom work, on tables, chairs, and other furniture.
Harness-Makers. 1833. Two.
Lace. This, of thread and silk, was made in large quantities and for a long period, by girls and women. It was formed on a lap-pillow, which had a piece of parchment round it with the particular figure, represented by pins stuck up straight, around which the work was done and the lace wrought. Black as well as white lace was thus manufactured of various widths, qualities, and prices. The females of almost every family would pass their leisure hours in such employment.
1790. No less than 41,979 yards were made here annually. After the first lace factory commenced, the pillows and bobbins were soon laid aside. What of these survive a century hence, will be viewed as curious emblems of industry, and mementos of labor performed in months, which is now done by a factory in one day.
Boston and Ipswich Lace Factory. This was incorporated in 1824, with a capital of $150,000. It became unprofitable, and closed in 1828.
New England Lace Factory. This was incorporated in 1827, with a capital of $50,000. Not yielding sufficient encouragement, it was mostly stopped in 1833.

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TRADE

In this, as in every calling, honesty is the best policy. They who make haste to be rich by unjust dealing, generally lose their reputation and die poor. It is far better for peace of conscience and durable estimation, to have one penny of honest gain, than one pound of fraudulent profit.
1640. As trade and commerce are embarrassed for want of money, no persons are to be compelled to pay future debts in cash, but in corn, cattle, fish, and other articles.
1641. The town have a committee for furthering trade among them. Ipswich is allowed to have one member of a company to traffic iwth the Indians for beaver and wampum.
1645. Several inhabitants here and elsewhere, petition to be a "company of adventurers," that whatever trade they may discover, shall be for their sole advantage twenty years; that they may have letters, with the public seal, to the French and others; have a caravan advanced up the country as far as they wish; have no trading-house within twenty miles of theirs, and locate their establishment fifty miles from every English plantation. This petition was granted so far as not to infringe on a previous one.
1648, May 10th. As grain is scarce, no wheat, rye, barley and corn are to be transported to foreign parts before 12th of 6th month, except corn brought in as merchandise.
1654. No malt is to be imported.
1655. A committee is appointed for Essex county to devise means for obtaining supplies for the inhabitants.
1678. The town choose a committee to promote trade.
1693. Leave is granted to twenty-three inhabitants to build shops on the bank of the river, from the bridge to Samuel Ardway's shop.
1706, Aug. 18th. Trade much decayed. The same was said of it before and during the Revolutionary contest.
1808, Aug. 18th. Trade suffers much from the embargo. 1833. It is flourishing. There are eight shops and thirteen stores. The coasting business began here about 1768. Then a company of sixteen persons had a sloop of seventy tons built and called the Friendship. They sent goods in this vessel to Maine, and received in exchange lumber and wood. — Then the last article cost there from 2s. to 3s. a cord, and

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was sold in Salem and Boston for 8s. or 9s. Previously to the formation of said company, lumber and wood were brought in occasionally from Wells, and also rafts of the former article came hither from Merrimack River.

EXCISE

So far as this is laid in the form of a penalty, to prevent immoral indulgences, or otherwise in a proper manner, to meet the expenses of government, it should not be eluded by deceptive arts, but be willingly paid.
1668. Each hogshead of cider, ale, and beer is assessed 2s. 6d., and each hogshead of mum sold in licensed houses 5s.
1726. Every gallon of distilled liquors and wine, at retail, 8d.
1755. Each family, who use wine or rum and arrack, pay 6d. a gallon on the first, and 4d. on the two last.
1794. By act of Congress duties are laid on carriages. They ended 1802. The same are enacted 1813, and closed 1817.
1798. Stamp duties on notes of hand and other business papers. They ceased 1803. 1813. The same were revived, and repealed 1817.

INTEREST MONEY

As yet, such is the wholesome check of public opinion, that comparatively few, who are more covetous than careful of their of their character, more set upon worldly possessions than upon the welfare of their souls, will consent to take greater interest in cases of common risk, than the law permits. 1643. None are allowed to have higher than eight per cent. 1693. Six become the legal rate, and has continued.

WAGES

These should be just. They should never be withheld from the poor, so that they shall be forced to run in debt, and

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thus pay dearer for their supplies. Whoever takes advantage of their necessities, shows a disposition most unlike othat of his Maker, most abhorrent in his sight.
1641. As money is scarce, and cattle, corn, and other things fallen, workmen are to have less wages and to receive pay in produce.
1668. For laying a thousand shingles 7s. 6d. are allowed.
1672. As workmen demand wine or liquors over their wages, and many refuse to labor without, which "tends much to the rooting of young persons in an evil practice, and by degrees to train them up to a habit of excess," any person who allows men and boys wine or strong liquors, except in cases of necessity, shall pay 20s.
1675. Each individual is to have 1s. 6d. a day for helping to get in the corn of those who are in the public service.

CURRENCY

For twenty years our fathers obtained their supplies mostly in the way of barter. During this period they had no silver or gold money, except what came from abroad, and long after it they had none of paper. When paper currency began to be popular, it met with strenuous opposition from the Crown. It is yet to be seen whether the introduction of bills, as a substitute, in the great degree they now are, for specie, into our country, will be a greater blessing than a curse.
1635. Musket bullets begin to pass for an equal number of farthings.
1637. Wampum is to be current, six for 1d. 1640. It begins to pass, four white for 1d., two blue for the same.
1642. Each rial of eight, 4s. 8d.
1650. Wampum, eight white for 1d., four black or blue for this sum, "if without break or deforming spots."
1652, May 26th. To prevent deception in money, the General Court order, that, after September, none of it shall be current, except the receiver consent, unless it be 3d., 6d. and 12d. pieces, coined at the mint-house in Boston. The first of these pieces had N. E. on one side, and III, VI, XII, according to their value, on the other. This making of money independently of England and while there was an interregnum, was

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afterwards visited with the Royal displeasure. It was continued till after 1667.
1652, Oct. 19th. To prevent the washing and clipping of coins, each of them is to have a double ring, a central tree, and "Masatvsets" on one side, and "New England, America," surrounding the year of its being made, on the other.
1654. Robert Lord is appointed searcher of coin at Ipswich. This referred to a late law, forbidding any specie to be exported, except for necessary expenses.
1786, Oct. 17th. Massachusetts Legislature vote to have a mint for issuing copper, silver, and gold money. They gave up the right of coining when the Constitution was adopted, 1789. Their cents, having an Indian with a bow and arrow, are seldom seen.
1793. The present copper coin of the United States, and, 1794, their silver and gold coins, began to be current.
PAPER MONEY. 1690, Dec. 10th. The General Court raise a committee to issue bills of credit. This was to pay the forces engaged in the Canada expedition.
1691. Colony bills are limited to £40,000.
1702. £10,000, from 2s. to £5 are issued to pay soldiers. 1702, £133, — 1713, £150, — 1716, £175, in bills, equal to £100 in specie.
1721. £50,000 are emitted.
1722. £500 worth of 1d., 2d. and 3d. bills are to be struck off, for small change. The 1d. to be round, the 2. square, and 3. angular. 1722, £270, — 1728, £340, — 1730, £380, equal to £100 in specie.
1723, Dec. 15th. Before this there had been £100,000 loan by government.
1733. £75,500 are voted to pay public debts.
1737. £20,000 of new tenor are emitted to exchange for old bills at the rate of one new for three old.
1740. The Governor states, that Massachusetts had issued in 1714, 1716, 1720, and 1727, £260,000; that £60,000 or £70,000 were yet unredeemed.
1750. £3000 worth of 1d., 3d., 4½d., 6d., 9d. and 18d. bills are to be emitted.
1775, July 27th. The Provincial Congress order £100,000 to be issued from 1s. to 40s.
1781. Paper money so depreciated that seventy-five dollars of it go for one of silver.

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1782, March 20th. By a resolve of the General Court, the inhabitants of this and every other town, are required to furnish an account of their old emission bills and forward it to the Secretary of State. Oct. 21st. There were $30,000,000 of such money fallen upon the hands of the Massachusetts people. The General Court ask redress of Congress.
1790, Nov. 8th. The treasurer of Ipswich is empowered to sell the old and new emission bills for the most they will bring, the price thereof to go towards lessening their debt.
1797, March 14th. The Town Records begin to compute money in dollars and cents, instead of the long-standing method of pounds, shillings, and pence. To see this ancient custom thus put out of the way, was not pleasant to aged persons, whose business associations with it had long and strongly been formed.

LAND BANK

There were eight stockholders in this bank, belonging to Ipswich, 1763.

MONOPOLIES

1777, April 17th. This town vote to observe a recent law of the General Court, forbidding monopolies, and to prosecute its transgressors. They instruct the Selectmen not to approbate any innholder or retailer, who will not comply with the Price Act.

VALUATION

1831. The property of Ipswich is handed in by its assessors to the State, at $505,995 and is doomed $577,142.

TAXES

TAXES. These, pertaining to the town, county, and state, are so light, compared with what are paid in most other parts

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of the world, are so accompanied with great benefits, they should not be, when fairly assessed, railed against, as intolerable burdens. 1662. T. £65 3s. 4d. 1678. T. and C. £265 3s. 5d, 1722. T. £237 7s., — sometimes paid one third, and at others half, in money, and the rest in produce, — C. £20 17s. 3d. 1733. T. £320 and C. £50.
The following are town taxes. 1767. £311 3s. 8d., and for high-ways £350. 1780. £21,500, and high-ways £9000, in depreciated bills. 1795. £850, and high-ways £300. 1820. $3500, and high-ways $1400. 1832. $3000, and 1833, $2000.
COLONY TAXES. These will be placed first and then followed by what Ipswich was assessed.
1633. Of £400, £8. 1634. Of £600, £50. Salem is taxed only £45, which shows, that Ipswich had increased fast in population and property. 1645. Of £616 15s., £61. This is to be paid half in cattle and half in money.
1650. As usual in all towns, the constable goes to Boston and pays the country tax to the Colony Treasurer.
1675. Of £1547 5s. 5d., £70. This year, Ipswich paid the fourth highest tax.
1677. The Selectmen of each town are empowered to rate by "will and doom" persons of estate, whose property is out of the reach of the law. Three rates are laid this year, two of them to be discharged by money and one by "country pay," or produce. If this be paid in money, one third is to be discounted.
The colony or province rates of Ipswich will now be mentioned alone.
1682. £209 12s. 6d., one third in money, the rest in produce.
1684. The Colony Treasurer complains, that much of the grain paid for taxes in distant towns, is lost on its way to Charlestown and Boston. He is to receive 1s. on £1, "he standing the loss of measure and charge of warehouse room."
1689. £332 1s. 6d. in pay, one half discounted for cash, and £178 5s. 10d. in money.
1691. £1713 19s. 6d., — large because of war expenses. They who pay their rates in produce must be at the expense of its transportation to Boston.
1727. Ipswich is assessed £26 0s. 1d. on every £1000 of Province tax, and stands next to Salem, in Essex county.

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1743. £27 12s. 5d. 1751. £22 9s. 6d. on £1000.
1775, Feb. 27th. The town vote, that all the collectors, having Province money for 1773, shall pay it to Michael Farley, and he pay it to Henry Gardner, Receiver-General.
STATE AND COUNTY TAXES. The proportion of this town's tax of $75,000 for the State, 1823, is $243.75. County tax for 1830, $705; for 1833, $385.45.

FISHERY

This business, requiring but little capital, and bringing in much profit, has long been considered as a source of wealth to New England.
WEARS. 1635. Richard Kent is allowed to build another wear on Chebacco River and enjoy the profits. John Perkins, jr., had made a wear on the same river, to have the profits of it seven years, beginning 1636, and to sell alewives at 5s. for 1000. He disposes of this place to Mr. Wm. Cogswell.
1674. Nathaniel Rust and Samuel Hunt are permitted to set up a wear about the Falls, if it do not hinder the mill nor passage thereto. The form of a wear was as follows. Stone walls were built down the stream, till they came in contact at an angle of forty-five degrees. At this angle a cage was placed, composed of hoops with twigs fastened to them. The walls conducted the fish down to the cage, and thus they were taken in great numbers.
COD AND OTHER FISHERY. 1641. The town raise a committee to "dispose of the Little Neck for the advancing of the Fishery." The fishermen have leave to enclose this Neck, where a fishing stage is. Every boat that comes there, shall have room to make its fish, and its crew have liberty to plant an acre of ground.
341648. Among the fishing vessels of Ipswich, four had spent the summer at "Monhiggan."
51670. Fishermen are allowed to take wood from the common for needed buildings and fuel. Each boat’s crew have leave to feed one cow on the common.
1696. Lots are to be laid out at Jeffrey’s Neck for flakeroom and stages.

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1706, Dec. 10th. John Higginson of Salem writes to Symond Epes, of Ipswich. "I hear a rumour of several whales that are gotten. I desire you to send me word how much we are concerned in them, and what prospect of a voyage. When they have done, I desire you would take care to secure the boats and utensils belonging to them."
1707, Sept. 22d. Mr. Higginson writes again about whaleboats and crews at Ipswich, and remarks, "We should be in readiness for the noble sport." Hence it appears that the whale-fishery was engaged in here upon a small scale.
531715. A committee of the proprietors meet at Jeffrey’s Neck and confirm to the owners of thirteen fishing boats the use of the room occupied by these boats.
51723. Flats are granted to set a house on to accommodate the fishery.
1730. The town vote, that owners of fishing vessels shall give an account of the crews, to the Clerk, on penalty of 20s. for every person’s name omitted.
1747. A passage had been made through two mill-dams for alewives.
541758. The fishery had declined one half in Massachusetts. Only six fishing schooners now belong to Ipswich.
51782, Jan. 1st. The town vote that their Representatives endeavour to have an application made to Congress, so that they instruct their Commissioners for peace, to have the right of the United States to the fishery, an indispensable article of the treaty.
1804. The fishery of shad and alewives in Mile River is to be regulated.
1825. The privilege of catching shad and alewives in Ipswich River is let. This privilege is one dollar a barrel. There are 350 barrels of alewives caught annually on an average. They are disposed of for the West India market.
CLAMS. 431763. The commoners forbid any more clams to be dug, than are necessary for the use of people in town, and of fishing vessels. They allow one barrel for each of a crew to the banks, and in proportion for boats in the bay.
1771. Owners of vessels are to pay 6d. a barrel. The poor may dig and sell clams out of town for 2s. a barrel.

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1789. The town vote to have the clam-flats, as well as sand-banks which had been given them by the commoners, let out, the clams at 1s. a barrel. There are 1000 barrels of clams dug in Ipswich annually. They are sold in Boston and other places, for bait, from $5 to $6 a barrel.

COMMERCE

This has generally thriven and greatly increased the wealth of communities, favored with a good haven. But Ipswich, not being so accommodated has never had much shipping, nor much trade with foreign ports. Its main dependence for the support and occupation of its inhabitants, has been its soil.
WHARVES. 1641. Wm. Paine is allowed to build one for a warehouse.
1660. Daniel Hovey another.
1662. Thomas Clark and Robert Pierce are to have a wharf.
1668. Francis and John Wainwright one.
1682. Simon Stacey another.
1685. Samuel Hunt has leave for a wharf.
1686. Andrew Sergeant has the same liberty.
1687. One to be at the upper end of the cove.
1693. Wm. Hayward and Joseph Fuller are allowed to erect a wharf.
1722. Another is to be at Hunt’s Cove, for landing hay.
1726. The request of several persons for a wharf to land such articles as hay and wood, is granted.
1730. Ammi R. Wise is allowed to have one for his vessels. Wm. Urann has a similar grant.
1732. Joseph Manning is allowed to erect a wharf. The town agree to have one at their expense, as a landing-place at 6d. a load.
1750. Daniel and Thomas Staniford are granted land at Crope’s Neck for a wharf and warehouse.
1756. Wm. Dodge is allowed to build one.
1764. Nathaniel Farley and others are to have another on Little Neck.
1818. Geo. W. Heard is granted land for a wharf and a convenient way to it.
1831. The superficial feet of wharf are 2400.

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OTHER COMMERCIAL CONCERNS. 51673. Some seamen are to have firewood free of expense from the commons.
181683. Ipswich is annexed with other towns, to Salem, as a port to load and unload.
51775, Dec. 4th. The town determine to fit out two vessels, for procuring a supply of grain, at their own risk, and give leave to any persons to adventure with them, on the following terms: The freighters shall pay one third of the corn and rye, and one quarter of the wheat, which may be brought back.
1777, Jan 21st. The town vote to pay for the vessel that was lost at Virginia, 1776. This vessel was undoubtedly one of the two preceding.
55Tonnage enrolled and registered at Ipswich Custom-House, is as follows: 1797, thirteen vessels, 450 tons; 1807, twenty-three, 1362; 1817, twelve, 1740; 1827, twenty-five, 3273; 1832, twenty-three, 2619.
LIGHT-HOUSE. — LANDMARKS. 1771, March 12th. The town vote, that a committee petition the General Court for a light-house on some part of Gloucester.
431772, Aug. 20th. The commoners grant £20 to Wm. Dodge and others "to erect suitable landmarks for the benefit of vessels bound in and out."

TAVERNS

These, when well kept, are the home of the traveller. But when they are resorted to by the idle, intemperate, and licentious of the place where they are situated, and thus become lures to draw the young from virtue and lead them to perdition, they are public nuisances, and no eye of authority should wink at their abominations, but every energy should be put forth for their immediate suppression.
181635, Sept. 3d. Robert Andrews is licensed by the General Court, to keep an ordinary. Tradition says, that the first tavern was kept in a one-story house, a few rods east of the "old brick house," at Smith’s corner.
1636. Mr. Andrews is allowed to sell wine by retail, "if he do not wittingly sell to such, as abuse it by drunkenness."

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1637. A law forbids "sack or strong water" to be sold at any ordinary, because it had been abused.
1638, March 12th. Mr. Samuel Symonds is appointed to sell "strong water."
1644. John Backronely sold wine.
1646. The price of a license to retail "strong water," wine, and beer, at Ipswich, is £2.
51671, June 8th. The town allow John Spark to draw beer at 1d. a quart, if he entertain no inhabitants in the night, "nor suffer any person to bring liquors to drink in his house, or wine."
1672. An inhabitant, because of his immorality, is ordered to be complained of, as unfit to sell liquors. Two men are forbidden to spend their time and money, as they had done, in the ordinaries. Orders similar to this were long repeated afterwards.
1681, Feb. 22d. Ipswich is allowed two public houses. Sept. 14th. Leave is granted to Obadiah Wood to sell cake and 1d. beer.
1690. Samuel Giddings is permitted to open a public house at Chebacco.
1691. Ipswich is allowed to have another tavern.
1693. The house kept by John Spark is occupied by John Rogers, the saddler, and had the sign of a black horse.
1732. John Thomson is innholder at the Hamlet.
1753. Richard Rogers is the same in town. There are several other names of persons, who kept taverns at Ipswich.
1833. There are three public houses.

PRISON — HOUSE OF CORRECTION

Whoever looks upon these necessary appendages of orderly society, must be reminded, that human nature is far from being perfect. When well fitted and properly conducted, they are likely to promote, in a greater or less degree, the prevention of crime. But if otherwise, they are schools of iniquity, which let out upon the community villains made more villanous, more skilled to deprave the morals and depredate on the property of the public.

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181652, May 22d. As there is but one prison in the whole colony, another is ordered to be built at Ipswich.
1656. Theophilus Wilson is keeper of the house of correction. His compensation is £3 a year, 5s. for each prisoner, and all prisoners are to pay him for their board and attendance; those not able to meet this charge are to be kept on bread and water. The selectmen are required, by law, to supply the house of correction with flax and hemp for work.
41684. The towns which send juries to Ipswich are to help build a house of correction here; and those which send juries to Salem are to help build one there.
1696. Thomas Fossey is keeper of Ipswich prison.
51751. The town vote to petition the General Sessions, "that the late prison be effectually repaired, and established, as heretofore, a prison and house of correction."
1760. A committee report, that there be a petition to the same court, to have a house of correction built here, and to permit the dissolute poor of the town to be put in the jail, till the house of correction shall be erected.
1771. A new jail is built on the place of the old one, which site is now occupied by the Rev. Mr. Kimball’s house.
1810, Feb. 21st. The county had recently erected a stone jail here, which cost nearly 27,000 dollars and was the only competent one in the shire for securing prisoners. This, being to the southeast of the former a considerable number of rods, is kept by Mr. Michael Brown. The prisoners committed here in 1823, were 13, — 1826, 31, — 1829, 20, — 1833, 18. Nearly the whole of them were intemperate, and one-fourth of them could neither read nor write.
1828. The old house of correction, at Norton’s Bridge, is discontinued, and a new one, on the premises of the jail, is occupied, and comes under the care of the keeper of the prison. The following commitments to the house of correction took place: — in 1828, 114, — 1829, 136, — 1830, 74, — 1831, 117, — 1832, 165, — 1833, 98. Nine-tenths of the individuals thus committed were addicted to intoxication.

COURTS

In no courts in the world is justice more impartially dispensed, than in our own. They yet remain for a protection

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to the poor as well as rich. Still, as human institutions, they, of course, are liable to err. Such a character, both in its lights and shades, has always belonged to our civil tribunals.
181636, March 3d. A court is to be held once a quarter in Ipswich, with which Newbury is connected, and which is to be kept by magistrates of or near the place where held. Previously to this, the General Court took cognizance of petty as well as of capital offences.
1637, May 17th. D. Dennison and S. Appleton are to assist in the Ipswich Court.
1638, May 2d. S. Symonds and Wm. Hubbard are appointed to hold a similar trust.
1640, Oct. 7th. It is ordered that mortgages, bargains, sales, or grants of land, be put on record, and S. Symonds is chosen recorder for the jurisdiction of Ipswich Court. This business, which belongs to the registry office, was long connected with the transactions of the Quarterly Court.
1641, June 2d. Two quarter courts in a year are to be held at Ipswich.
561693, May, 2d Tuesday. It appears that the first Supreme Court, which sat in Ipswich, now convenes here to try persons charged with witchcraft, all of whom are cleared.
1833. For a long period, the Probate, Common Pleas, and Supreme Courts have been held in this town.

IMMORALITIES AND CRIMES

Vigilance and retribution for transgressions of wholesome laws, denote a healthful state of morals, and prevent the abounding of iniquity. Woe to the people, who become so familiar with one trespass and another against the Divine decalogue, as to tolerate them, and consider it more reproachful to visit them with punishment, than to excuse them because popular.
181633, Sept. 3d. An inhabitant of Ipswich is sentenced to pay £10 and stand with a white sheet of paper on his back, whereon Drunkard is written in great letters, and to stand therewith so long as the court think meet, for abusing himself shamefully with drink and enticing his neighbour’s wife to incontinency and other misdemeanors. This neigh

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bour is fined 15s. for drunkenness. There, as in numerous other lamentable cases since, intoxication led to the commission of crime.
1639, March 5th. A person for lewd attempts, is to be severely whipped in Boston and Ipswich, and to wear the letter V on the breast of his outer garment. For his apparent reformation, he was allowed to leave off the V in June.
41663, May 5th. A female of Newbury is sentenced by the Ipswich Court, for perjury, to stand at the meeting-house door of the former town next lecture-day, from the ringing of the first bell till the minister be ready to begin prayer, with a paper on her head, having on it, written in large capital letters, "For taking a false oath."
181665, May 3d. A woman of Ipswich is tried for burning General Dennison’s house; not found guilty; fined as a thief, and to be whipped for lying.
41667, March 26th. A man of this place, is prosecuted for digging up the bones of the Sagamore, and for carrying his scull upon a pole.
1677, March 27th. Several persons are tried here and sentenced to be branded and fined, for robbing Wm. Lattimore on the high-way.
1684, April 15th. An individual of Salem, twice before convicted of theft, is sentenced at Ipswich for burglary, to be branded with B, to pay treble damages, and to be whipped fifteen lashes at the former town next lecture-day. He was branded here, and sent to Salem to have the rest of his punishment.
1817, July 18th. On Friday night, the house of Colonel Jonathan Cogswell was entered, his desk was broken open, and one hundred dollars were taken. The perpetrator of this was not discovered. It is indeed true, that the way of transgressors is hard. Even if not detected by man, they carry in their bosom the smothered, but tormenting fires of guilt.

LETTERS OF IPSWICH COURT

1663, April 4th. This Court send a letter to Lynn Church, clearing two of their brethren from the charge of perjury, in a recent land case. May 5th. in answer to a reply of the Rev. Samuel Whiting, the Court apprehend that their purpose

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in writing was misunderstood; that they did not mean any "Erastianisme," or denial of the church’s power to censure or decree. This word Erastianisme is from Doctor Thomas Erastus, who contended in England about 1647, that the church had no power either to censure or decree.

TRIALS AND EXECUTIONS FOR MURDER

It is well known that such punishment was more necessary, to render the property and lives of the community safe, before the erection of state-prisons, than subsequently. Even now, in cases of extreme atrocity, this punishment, as required by law, seems just and requisite. The criminal, who has forfeited his life and has a reasonable time to prepare for eternity, is more likely to repent and have this preparation, when assured that he must soon stand before his omniscient Judge, than if he was permitted to live out all his days within the walls of a penitentiary. It is a fearful fact, that capital crimes increase in our country, in a greater ration, than its population does. Our chief hope for turning back so dark and portentous a flood, is the increase of pure religion in our nation.
221637, Sept. 28th. John Williams is hanged in Boston. "He was a ship-carpenter, who, being lately come into the country and put in prison for theft, brake out with one John Hoddy, whom, near the great pong, in the way to Ipswich, he murdered, and took away his clothes and what else he had, and went in them to Ipswich, where he had been sent to prison, and was there again apprehended; and though his clothes were all bloody, yet he would confess nothing, till about a week after the body of Hoddy was found." At the same time, Wm. Schooler is hanged in Boston for the murder of Mary Sholy, on the way from Newbury to Piscataquay. He was examined for this crime by the magistrates of Ipswich, over a year before he was proved guilty.
191701, July 17th. Esther Rogers of Newbury, for killing a child Nov. 12th, 1700, is hung and placed on a gibbet at Pingrey’s Plain in Ipswich. Tradition informs us, that she confessed this to be her second illegitimate child, and that the first was secreted, she not knowing whether it was dead or alive. She appeared very sorrowful for her iniquities, and

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acknowledged her sentence to be righteous. She continued in deep distress for her sins, after she set out for the gallows; but, when passing a hill, she was divinely enabled to cast her soul upon Christ and to enjoy the consolations of a hope in him. This hill from that time, has been called "Comfort Hill," because she there was comforted by the promises of religion to the penitent.
About 1725, Elizabeth Atwood, single woman, of Ipswich, was hung for murdering her child. She gave no signs of being properly affected by her crime, or by the realities of eternity. She put on, as many others in a similar condition have done, a mock courage, which set at defiance the retributions of both God and man. As an evidence of her callousness, tradition tells us that, as it was customary for the executioner to have the clothes of those whom he executed, she fitted herself out in the very worst of her apparel, and on her way to the gallows, she laughed, so that a woman who attended her saw it, and exclaimed, "How can you be so thoughtless on such an occasion?" and that she immediately replied, "I am laughing to think what a sorry suit the hangman will get from me."
451772, May 5th. Sarah Goldthwaite, single woman, of Lynn, was committed to jail last Friday, charged with the murder of her male child, found with stones round its neck in a pond. June 23d. She was tried last week at Ipswich and cleared. In connexion with this case, more than one murder was strongly suspected. A young woman much out of health, who was supposed to have knowledge about the death of the child, which would make her a dangerous witness, appears to have been taken from her room and carried to a secret place in the woods, where she was found dead. They who are concerned in committing one iniquity, put themselves in the way of committing another.
161778, July 2d. Ezra Ross, a single man, and belonging to the west part of Ipswich, is hung at Worcester, for being concerned in the murder of Mr. Spooner, at the instigation of his abandoned wife. The day of his execution was kept as a season of fasting and prayer for his untimely end, in his native parish.
1795, Aug. 6th. Pomp, a negro, was hung at Ipswich, for killing his master, Captain Charles Furbush, of Andover.

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Before his execution, he was carried into the meeting-house at 11 o’clock. Mr. Frisbie prayed and Mr. Dana preached from the words, "He that sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed." Mr. Bradford of Rowley prayed at the gallows. Pomp remained unaffected through the whole of so awful a scene. He was directed to call on God for mercy, and he formally complied. His mind had been so little instructed and his heart so left to moral darkness, that he appeared to have no realizing perception of his guilt or of his danger in being suddenly sent into eternity. The little while he was under the care of the Ipswich ministers, they faithfully did what they could to correct the gross errors of his long neglected education.
1802, Nov. Cato Haskell is sentenced for manslaughter, to be branded on the forehead with M, and imprisoned a year. He belonged to this town, and had killed Charles Lewis, from Virginia, Oct. 12th, with a scythe. They were both colored men. Cato broke jail and was not recovered.

OTHER MODES OF PUNISHMENT

STOCKS. These were common in towns where courts were held, as early as 1638. They were employed in Ipswich, as a terror to the disorderly, down to 1794. They stood behind the First Parish meeting-house, with the whipping post, and, generally, with the gallows, when erected.
PILLORY. This was sometimes seen on the meeting-house hill, when persons were punished for making haste to be rich by fraudulent practices. Having stood upon it as the sentence required, a gazing-stock to the multitude, they would, for the most part, have one or both ears cropped, to mark their offence wherever they should go.
WEARING A HALTER. When individuals had done something which bordered on a capital crime, they would be seated on a gallows, with a rope round their neck at one end, and tied to the gallows with the other. This was usually accompanied with whipping. In the early settlement of our country, persons were made to wear a halter, open to public view, for months and years.
CAGE. This was about ten feet wide and sixteen long, and partly covered. It contained sabbath-breakers and other transgressors on lecture-days, so that they might be exposed

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to the sight of the whole congregation, passing and repassing. It was used in several towns till after 1718. As Ipswich was one of the places where courts were held and where criminals in the northern part of Massachusetts were tried and punished, it is not likely that this town was destitute of a cage "for unclean birds."
CLEFT STICK. This was used in the early settlement of the colony, to confine tongues convicted of slander.
DUCKING AND GAGGING. 1672, May 15th. The General Court say, that as there is no express punishment for "exorbitancy of the tongue in railing and scolding," it is ordered "that railers and scolds be gagged, or set in a ducking-stool, and dipped over head and ears three times." The same reason for assigning a cage to this town, is applicable, as to the above mode and apparatus of administering summary justice. That we may form some idea of a ducking instrument, the following is quoted from the history of Ipswich in England, for which this place was named. "In an apartment of the custom-house at Ipswich, is an original ducking-stool. It is in the form of a strong-backed chair, with a wrought iron rod, about an inch in diameter, fastened to each arm in front, meeting in a segment of a circle above. There is, also, another iron rod affixed to the back, which curves over the head of the person seated in the chair, and is connected with the others at the top, to the centre of which is fastened an iron ring, for the purpose of slinging the machine into the river. In the chamberlain’s book are various notices of money to porters for taking down the ducking stool. In 1597 three unfortunate females underwent this opprobrious ceremony. The fee for inflicting the punishment was 1s. 6d."
Of the various sorts of public punishment, none of them, except hanging, has been administered since convicts were sent to the State Prison. Blessed must be the day when such a renovation of human nature shall have taken place, that no one can be found to transgress, no prison have an inmate, no punishment have a subject.

SLAVES

These were owned for a considerable period, though in no great number, by inhabitants of Ipswich. They were Indians

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as well as Africans. Besides these, in the early age of the colony, criminals were sold into servitude for a term of years, according to their offences.
371755. The slaves in this town above sixteen, are sixty-two.
1774. Conscience and consistency, as to the claims of freedom, so prevail in Massachusetts, that slaves of twenty-one, who sue for emancipation, have a verdict of juries in their favor. This greatly loosens the bonds of slavery in Ipswich and other places.
1780. The State Constitution declares, that "all men are born free and equal." This clause is inserted as an abolition of human bondage. It gives liberty to the slaves here and elsewhere. Thus fell one of the greatest abominations ever chargeable upon the home of the Puritans. Well, unspeakably well, would it have been for no small portion of our Republic, could it have been influenced by the same enlightened views, and by the same righteous motives. But we are aware that it is not so. The cries of oppressed multitudes still throng Heaven’s tribunal for awful retribution upon our land. Millions, holding their fellow-beings in servitude, are bequeathing to their children a heritage of peril, iniquity, blood, and carnage.

POPULATION

As the tide of emigration has long flowed from Ipswich, with little comparative reflux, the people of this place have not become numerous.
321646. There are one hundred and forty families. — These would make, if reckoning, as is commonly done, five and two-thirds to a family, about 793 inhabitants.
181677, Dec. 20th. Twenty-five Tythingmen are appointed, each of whom by act of the General Court, is to have the charge of ten families. This would give 1,417.
According to the census of 1800, there were 3,305, — 1810, 3,569, — 1820, 2,553. The diminution of this from the preceding census, was because Chebacco parish had become incorporated. 1830, 2,951 inhabitants. The greater part of the men are farmers. From the appearance of business and the

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© 2005 by John Slaughter