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was truly as sweet to her, as the black broth of the Spartans was to them. With regard to bread-stuffs, rye and Indian corn were long the only ones used. In 1720, flour was baked and eaten in a few rich families, as a rare treat. Within thirty years the consumption of it has increased.
The sage remark long ago made, that we should eat to live, and not live to eat, is worth our constant observance and practice.
An account of the fashions of household furniture and of dress was prepared for this place, but the extent of other concerns requires it to be omitted.

TRAVELLING

At the first settlement of Ipswich, as horses were scarce, walking on foot was common with all classes. When such animals became plenty, two persons would ride one of them, fitted out with a saddle and a pillion. Females, also, rode singly on side-saddles much more commonly than in modern times. These customs continued till the introduction of small wagons and chaises. About 1770, it began to be the practice to trot horses. Previously these animals had paced. It had been common to pay individuals for learning them to go in this manner. The way, in which a horse was learned to pace, was by fastening his two right and two left feet with leather straps, so that the two former might step together, and then the two latter. The first chair, being a sort of chaise body without a top, known to have been owned in Ipswich, was one of Richard Rogers, Esq., in 1730. One of the first chaises was that of the Rev. Samuel Wigglesworth, about 1753. There were a few sleighs in 1740, and the number slowly increased. 43For the accommodation of the people here and elsewhere, John Stavers, of Portsmouth, commenced, 1762, the running of a curricle, drawn by two horses, from that town to Boston. This carriage left on Monday morning and came to Ipswich, and reached Charlestown ferry next day. It went and returned by Friday night. The fare through the whole route one way, was 13s. 6d. sterling. 451774, a stage with four horses from Newburyport to Boston rode through Ipswich twice a week in going

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and the same in returning. This was an accommodation exceeding any of preceding years. But it was far less than now exists. Such facilities for travelling are twenty times greater than they were then. About thirty-five years ago [ca. 1799], horse-wagons began to be employed. Gradually increasing, they have almost altogether superseded riding on horse-back among our farmers. They are used to carry articles to market, which were formerly borne to town in wallets and panniers, thrown across a horse. They have prevented the method of going in a cart, as often practised before they were invented, by social parties, when wishing to make a visit of several miles. Should the improvements in journeying be as great for two centuries to come, as they have been in the two already elapsed, posterity will as much wonder that we are contented with the present degree of such improvements, as we do, that our ancestors were satisfied with their mode of travelling.

ENTAILMENT

It was the general custom of our fathers to bequeath their real estate, so that it could not be sold by their heirs. This custom continued as legal, till the peace of our Independence. Even after this period some property was held by claim of entailment. In one case, where a large amount was likely to fall into other hands, than were intended by its former possessor, the immediate owner had the entailment of it removed by act of the General Court about 1792, so that he might dispose of such estate as he wished. Thus an ancient law, whereby estates were long kept in one name, and the eldest sons had the most of what their fathers left, was broken down. Still the habit, acquired under the influence of this practice, has not altogether ceased; not a few of our aged farmers leave their houses and lands to their eldest sons, on condition of paying small legacies to other heirs. They have an aversion to the prospect, that what they either inherited or earned, should be divided among several, and thus become insufficient for the support of one family, who stand related to them and bear their name. Formerly, if there was no great amount of real estate, the parent, instead of entailing it, would give his eldest son a double portion. This custom lasted till after the Revolution. It was one of the practices which were brought to this colony from Eu-

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rope; one of the ties by which our ancestors were bound to the mother country.

REPUTATION OF OUR ANCIENT INHABITANTS

A large proportion of these inhabitants possessed intelligent minds, virtuous hearts, useful influence, and respectable character. They well understood how the elements of society should be for the promotion of its welfare, and how such elements should be formed, and kept pure from ignorance and irreligion. They were careful of their own example, and thereby gave force to their precepts. They provided and supported schools. They selected able and pious men for their spiritual guides. They attended to these and other concerns of society, as persons, who felt bound to consult the benefit of posterity as well as their own immediate good. Cotton Mather, while speaking of Mr. Rogers's ordination in 1638, says, "Here [Ipswich] was a renowned church, consisting mostly of such illuminated Christians, that their pastors, in the exercise of their ministry, might, in the language of Jerome, perceive that they had not disciples so much as judges." Johnson remarks, 1646, — "The peopling of this towne is by men of good ranke and quality, many of them having the yearly revenue of large lands in England before they came to this wildernesse; but their estates being imployed for Christ, and left in banke, they are well content till Christ shall be pleased to restore it againe to them or theirs, which in all reason should be out of the Prelates' lands in England." The term, "Prelates," refers to those ecclesiastical persons, who so persecuted the first settlers of Ipswich, as to force them to seek a refuge here. The same writer informs us, that some of these Pilgrims were merchants. One reason why the original inhabitants of this town sustained a reputation, better than commonly falls to the lot of newly settled communities, was, that several of their clergymen brought with them some of their most estimable parishioners from England. Reflection upon worthy ancestors affords satisfaction, and should lead to a constant imitation of their excellences. Were the lustre of such reflection altogether free from spots, it would be more than has ever been realized from a corporation of human

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beings. There were two betrayers of the public weal, even among the first twelve, who accompanied the younger Winthrop to the wilds of Agawam. In these betrayers we have a specimen two centuries old, of the more than brutal degradation, of the enormous iniquity, and of the most painful consequences, to which intoxication has always led some of its votaries, and to which it especially and constantly exposes the whole of them. It would be far better for the temporal and eternal welfare of men to be Rechabites, Nazarenes indeed, — to have their lips never moistened, except with the pure drink, which God in his wisdom has made and has caused to gush from the fountains of earth, than to partake of the choicest wines and spirits, which the perverted genius of science has invented, and thus to continually enlarge the multitudes, who sacrifice themselves on the crowded altars of Intemperance.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY

The landscape, as contained within the former boundaries of Ipswich, affords an agreeable variety.
HILLS. These, as well as other features of the soil, will be put down, partly preceded by the year, when first found upon record, though most of them must have been previously designated. The reason of the hills being called as they are, is, for the most part, suggested by their names. Those not mentioned as belonging elsewhere, are within the present limits of Ipswich, and their situation may be seen on the map of this place.
1634, Castle. 1635, Great bare -- Heart-Break. 1637, Rabbit -- Hurtleberry -- Captain Turner's -- Little Turner's -- Turkey. 1647, Rocky. 1655, Bartholomew. 1662, Wilderness. 1665, Red-Root. 1673, Averill's. 1676, Wigwam. 1678, Wind-Mill. 1689, Paine's. 1691, Bragg's. 1702, Long -- Brush -- Tobacco-Pipe -- Scott's -- Pigeon -- Pine -- Timber -- Steep. Some of the hills contained on the map of Ipswich may be partly among those on the preceding list, but with changed names; as North Ridge -- Town -- Jewett -- Prospect -- Boar -- Eagle -- Plover -- Burnham -- White's -- Perkins's, and Eveleth's now in Essex. 1638, Sagamore. 1678, Lamson's. 1702, Whipple or Job's --

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Vineyard -- Dean's -- Wigwam -- Brown's and Independent, Sagamore hill, and the others which follow it in the paragraph, are all in Hamilton. The two last are modern names.
PLAIN. This was denominated Wolf-Pen, a place for catching wolves.
MEADOWS. 1634, Rocky. 1635, Far. 1637, West. 1647, New, between Topsfield and Hamilton -- Nealand and Conant's, on Topsfield bounds -- Perley's, in Essex.
SWAMPS. 1635, Great Pine. 1678, Cedar -- Bear, in Hamilton -- Long, in Essex.
MARSHES. 1635, Reed -- Rocky.
CREEKS. 1634, Labor-in-vain. 1635, Chebacco, in Essex. 1650, Robinson -- Walker. 1667, Green. 1672, Whitred. 1678, Muscle. Other creeks, Sluice -- Dane -- Fox -- Boardman -- Paine. On the map are the following: Rodgers -- Lord -- Treadwell -- Neck -- Six-Geese -- Metcalf -- Broad -- Law -- Wallis -- Stacy -- Kimball -- Hart -- Baker -- West -- Grape -- Pine.
COVES. 1638, Great. 1716, Muscle -- Neck -- Lord's.
POINTS. 1635, Moore. 1667, Green -- Cedar -- Brewer -- Safford -- Hog Island -- Deacon Sam -- Cross Bank -- Holland -- Sawyer -- Bar Island.
NECKS. 1635, Little -- Great -- Jeffrey. 1655, Castle -- Crope's.
BANKS. Thatch -- Cross -- Nub -- Hart -- Beach -- Neck, or Patch.
PARTICULAR PLACES. Turkey Shore -- Diamond's Stage. 1635, Great Crook. 1639, Aspine Rock. 1643, Poor Man's Field. 1650, Far Chebacco, towards Gloucester -- The Hundreds. 1662, Argilla. 1678, Great Pasture, near Gloucester line -- Cow-Keeper Rock -- The Eighths -- Town Landing -- Sheep Walks, several places where shepherds kept flocks of sheep. 1707, Blind Hole.
SPRINGS. Indian. 1678, Lummus, on Wenham line -- Bath -- Bear Swamp, in Hamilton.
BROOKS. 1635, Mile, running from Wenham pond to Ipswich river. 1637, Gravel. 1649, Pye. 1660, Saunders. 1681, Black, in Hamilton -- Howlet, on Topsfield bounds -- Choate, in Essex -- Bull -- Potter -- Norton.
PONDS. 1662, Pleasant, on Wenham line. 1671, Baker, on Topsfield limits -- Prichard -- Duck -- Perley, in Essex -- Chebacco, partly in Essex and partly in Hamilton -- Beck -- Round and Gravel, in Hamilton.
RIVERS. Ipswich. Speaking of this, Johnson says, 1646,

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"A faire and delightful river, whose first rise or spring begins about twenty-five miles farther up the country, issuing forth a very pleasant pond. But soon after, it betakes its course through a most hideous swamp of large extent, even for many miles, being a great harbour for bears. After its coming forth this place, it groweth larger by the income of many small rivers, and issues forth in the sea, due east against the Island of Sholes, a great place of fishing for our English nation." 1634, Chebacco, having falls and running from Chebacco pond, in Essex. 1635, North, or Egypt, flowing into Rowley river. 1637, Muddy, emptying into the same -- Rodgers Island. 1707, Mill, running out of long swamp into the great pond, beyond Chebacco river.
ISLANDS. Plumb. In the grant of King James, 1621, to Captain John Mason, of land between Naumkeag and Merrimack rivers, there is the subsequent clause; "The great Isle, henceforth to be called, Isle of Mason, lying near or before the bay, harbour, or river of Agawam." This must have been Plumb Island, part of which was set off to Ipswich by the General Court, 1639. 1637, Hog, in Essex. 1662, Diamon. 1668, Perkins -- Boreman. 1673, Bagwell -- Birch -- Rogers -- Treadwell -- Tilton -- Bull -- Horse -- Manning -- Grape -- Millstone -- Holy -- Eagle -- Mighill's Garden -- Groce -- Bar, -- Story -- Round -- Corn -- Cross; the four last in Essex.
INLAND ISLANDS. 1707, Gregory, in Chebacco Pond -- Hemlock, on Wenham line.
HARBOUR. Smith says of Agawam, — "This place might content a right curious judgment; but there are many sands at the entrance of the harbour, and the worst is, it is imbayed too farre from the deepe sea." His opinion, though differing from that of the first settlers at Plymouth, was correct. Had the harbour of Ipswich been deep and capacious, it would probably have been a metropolis. The natural advantages or disadvantages of a place, make it either great or small, in the process of ages.

SOIL

This has its various portions of the clayey, loamy, sandy, gravelly, marshy, peaty or mossy, and vegetable-earthy. speaking of the people here, 1646, Johnson remarks; "They have very

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good land for husbandry, where rocks hinder not the course of the plough." The land, in general, does not abound with rocks. These are primitive and the common granite, exhibiting their constituent parts in different proportions. 1831, the land contained the following divisions: 778 acres of tillage, 2000 of English upland and mowing, 469 of fresh meadow, 3367 of salt marsh, 7423 of pasturage, 403 of woodland, 1090 of unimproved, besides 1690 of unimprovable, 3579 covered with water, in addition to 468 of roads.

MANURE

Moreton observed, 1637, that shad and alewives were used to feed the ground; that one thousand of them were put into an acre, which would yield three times more corn, than without them. This custom was derived from the Indians, and continued till the English so increased as to diminish the fish. 181639, the General Court order, that after June 20th, no bass nor cod shall be taken for manure, except their heads and offals. The following order, relative to this subject, was passed by the town, 51644, May 11. "It is ordered that all doggs, for the space of three weeks after the publishinge hereof, shall have one legg tyed up. If such a dogg should break loose and be found in any corne field, doing any harme, the owner of the dogg shall pay the damages. If a man refuse to tye up his dogg’s legg, and hee bee found scraping up fish in the corne field, the owner shall pay 12s., besides whatever damage the dogg doth. But if any fish their house lotts, and receive damage by doggs, the owners of those house lotts shall beare the damage themselves." Since fish became scarce, the land has been manured chiefly with the contents of barnyards, and, among the sea-board residents, with rock-weed and other vegetable substances in addition.

CULTIVATION

This is equal to what it generally is in the county of Essex. In this town, however, as in many parts of our country, suitable care is not taken to keep the land in

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prime order. The increase of the earth is reaped, but sufficient nourishment is not returned to supply the exhaustion. The impression is entertained by no small number of our yeomanry, that by cultivating their ground as long as it will bear with a moderate supply of manure, they realize more profit than by different management. But others neither think nor act so. Experiment evidently decides in favor of the latter class. Some persons have made considerable exertion to improve their swamps and meadows. Their enterprise has not been in vain. Lots, once of little or no profit, now yield plentiful crops of hay. No doubt the influence of the Agricultural Society of our county has tended to improve our farming interest; and would have done more, had a larger number of our inhabitants united with it, attended its meetings, and acted according to its instructions. Husbandry is an essential, honorable employment. Without it potentates could neither reign nor live; all the gold and rubies of the globe would be worth no more than the dust of the streets. To redeem such a calling from the unmerited disrespect, which has been cast upon it, our farmers have only to increase their stock of useful knowledge, and to advance in the good degree of morality, which many of them may justly claim.

VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS

These are such as are generally raised in New England. The crops of grain, fodder, fruit, and vegetables, are about equal to those of the adjacent region. There will not be room to give a botanical arrangement of such productions. We shall only speak of some among them, in common parlance.
GRAIN. 31Before Agawam was peopled by the English, it had fields of corn planted by the Indians. This has always been raised, more or less, on our farms, as a staple commodity. When, for several years before the last, it was about sixty cents a bushel, because of the abundance from the South and West, very little of it, comparatively, was cultivated. But now it brings nearly the old price of one dollar, we see that it has more and larger fields for its growth. No doubt but that the primitive settlers of Ipswich either brought other sorts

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of grain with them, or obtained some to plant from their neighbours.
25As early as 1629, the officers of the Massachusetts Company wrote to John Endicott; — “We have sent grayne for seed, wheat, barley, and rye in the chaff.” These with oats have been continually cultivated in larger or smaller quantities, according to the demand and seasons for them. Such grain has fallen and risen in price as corn has. It has been observed, that, when rye was mildewed, barley was not; and the latter was so blasted, the former escaped. English grain is found to be better when sown in the fall than in the spring. It was long ago discovered, that grain of this kind would suffer a blight when growing near barberry bushes in flower. Before the Revolution, when beer was more commonly used than afterwards, barley was raised here in considerable quantities and made into malt for brewing. The fact that the several kinds of grain, except corn, were exotics, and brought from England, has given them the name of English for about two centuries. 1831, there were raised 60 bushels of wheat, 330 of rye, 698 of oats, 12,128 of corn, 467 of barley.
HAY. This was always abundant within the former bounds of Ipswich. There are various kinds of grasses, natural to the soil. But that which is called English, probably because its seed was imported from England, finds the most ready sale and the highest price in Salem and Boston. Little of it was carried to the latter place twenty years ago. From that time such hay has been transported thither increasingly. Within ten years many tons of it have been sold weekly in that city, when the weather and way have permitted. Formerly twenty or thirty hundred were considered a great load. Now most loads average seventy, and a few weigh ninety-five hundred. Till the latter part of 1833, for several years, such hay had fallen so as to fetch only from fifty to sixty cents a neat hundred. Since, the common price has been from ninety cents to one dollar and eight cents a hundred. Large quantities of salt hay are obtained from the marshes. It is healthy for cattle, and makes much saving of other fodder. The labor of obtaining it is the hardest and most perilous, which our farmers have to do. It is noticeable, that old records in speaking of marshes, sometimes call them meadows. Fresh or meadow hay is cut in abundance. It serves cattle as a substitute for the English, which is sent to market. 1831, there were cut

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1075 tons of English hay, 224 of meadow, and 1880 of salt marsh.
FRUITS. Such of these as grow spontaneously in our woods and other wild lands, are natural to the soil, and often served to regale Indians long before the English came among them. Of this kind, which once abounded, but are now scarce, were mulberries, strawberries, black and red currants. We are told that the plumbs, which are found on Plumb Island, were plenty, many years since, in various parts of the town. Fruits from Europe, such as apples and pears, began to be cultivated immediately after the arrival of our ancestors hither. Other exotic fruits are raised her in about the same proportion as in the vicinity.
ESCULENT VEGETABLES. Of these, which our fathers found cultivated by Indians, are pumpions, water-melons, beans, and peas. To them were added others from European seed, which are generally found in our gardens. Potatoes, though of American origin, were not cultivated in this town till 1733, and then but seldom. They were kept as a rarity, to eat with roast meat. They were at first planted in beds, as beets and carrots. Three bushels of them were considered a large crop for one farmer’s family. Now a hundred bushels of them are not thought so much of, as one was then. Before potatoes came into use, turnips were raised abundantly and supplied the place, which the former now do. 22Sweet potatoes were imported from Bermuda into Boston as early as 1636, and were sold at 2d. a pound. It seems that no efforts were made here to cultivate this species of potatoes, as there have been, to a small extent, within a few years.
TOBACCO. This, being so called from Tobaco or Tobago, one of the Caribbean Islands, where it grew as well as in other parts of America, was used by the natives before they were visited by Europeans. The species, however, which the Indians consumed, had a small, round leaf, and was commonly called poke. Another, having a broad, long leaf, pointed at the end, was raised by our ancestors. Tobacco was considered hurtful by the legislature, and was forbidden by their acts.
181634. No person shall take tobacco publicly, on fine of

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2s 6d., or privately in his own or another’s house, before acquaintances or strangers.
1635. It is enacted that no one shall buy or sell this commodity on penalty of 10s. after September. These restrictions did not avail. What Josselyn said, 1663, as to the consumption of tobacco in England, was applicable to our people; “It is generally made the compliment of our entertainments and hath made more slaves than Mahomet.”
The records of Ipswich speak, 1682, of tobacco yards, as having been common. Such places were continued to 1783. Up to this year scarcely any other tobacco was used in Ipswich, than what was raised here. Many families would have their spots of land for cultivating it, and their mode of twisting it, and curing it with molasses and rum so as to render it more palatable. Segars were very little used till after the peace of Independence. Pipes and a large box of tobacco for smoking were in daily and extensive use. They were considered, till within thirty years, as essential for the entertainment of company, as the chibouque and its apparatus are in Turkey. It is matter of consolation, that tobacco, though consumed much more than either cleanliness, comfort, health, or temperance justifies, has begun to loose its hold on the vitiated appetite of thousands, and that there is some prospect of its going down to the deep degradation of intoxicating liquors. Had the liquid, which the affrighted servant of Raleigh threw upon him, so effectually quenched his zeal for rendering tobacco fashionable, as it fully drenched his smoking head, and thus no imitators of this noble lord been found, a vast amount of evil would have been prevented in the civilized world.
HEMP. This was known to the Aborigines before they ever saw Europeans. They made it into lines and nets. Our fathers long cultivated it principally for clothing. It has not been used for many years, being exchanged for more convenient articles.
SHRUBS. None of these, which were indigenous, have disappeared. Among them is Sumach, which has formerly used and exported as a dye-stuff. Its root, suitably prepared, imparts a reddish color. Its berries, pounded and mixt with honey, used to be administered for the hemorrhoids.
TREES. Of these, which are natural to the soil and which have become scarce among us, are the Mulberry, Bass, Ches-

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nut or Chees-nut, and Sassafras. The last was, may years ago, an article of commerce, and was applied to medical purposes.

WILD QUADRUPEDS

These, of course, were far more abundant, when our ancestors came hither, than they were subsequently. Not a few of them, whose habits were uncongenial with nearness to populous regions, have entirely deserted our territory. Such are the Beaver, Wild-cat, Wolf, Bear, Deer, and Moose.
WOLVES. Many and long were the efforts of our fathers to extirpate wolves, which often preyed on their flocks. For this purpose, Ipswich receives, in 1635, twenty-five wolf-hooks, as their proportion of those sent over by Mr. Wilson.
51642. "Whosoever kills a wolf is to have — and the skin, if he nail the head up at the meeting-house and give notice to the constables. Also, for the better destroying or fraying away wolves from the town, it is ordered, that by the 1st day of 7th mo., every householder, whose estate is rated £500 and upward, shall keep a sufficient mastive dog; or £100 to £500, shall provide a sufficient hound or beagle, to the intent that they be in readiness to hunt and be employed for the ends aforesaid." The fine for not complying with this order, was 1s. each month, till it was obeyed.
1644. "Whoever shall kill a wolfe with hounds, or the greater part of the dogs being hounds, shall have payed him by the constable 10s.; if with a trapp or otherwayes, hee shall have 5s., provided they bring the heads to the meeting-house and there nayle them up, and give notice thereof to the constable, whom we appoint to write in his booke a due remembrance thereof."
181648. The heads of wolves, in order to receive the premiums, must be brought to the constable and buried. The selectmen of each town are empowered "to purchase as many hounds as they think meet, and to impose the keeping of them on such as they think fittest, so that all means may be improved for the destruction of wolves." Josselyn informs us, 1663, how such animals were taken. "Four mackerel hooks across are bound with a brown thread and then some

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wool is wrapped round them and they are dipped into melted tallow, till they be as big and round as an egg. This thing, thus prepared, is laid by some dead carcase, which toles the wolves. It is swallowed by them, and is the means of their being taken."
51668. Any person catching or killing a wolf within two miles and a half of the meeting-house, shall have 40s. over what is already allowed by the colony, which makes £4.
1715. The town vote 30s. over what the law allows, for killing a grown wolf, and 5s. for a whelp wolf, if destroyed within their limits. Notwithstanding the constant warfare carried on against them, wolves continued their devastations there till 1757. Down to this year, it was a common thing to hear them commence their howl soon after sun-set, when it was very dangerous to go near the woods. Tradition is full of accounts about their destroying large numbers of sheep. They would occasionally attack, wound, and kill cattle.
1723. Wolves were so abundant and so near the meeting-house, that parents would not suffer their children to go and come from worship without some grown person.
BEARS. The most noted resort for these was in a swamp, which received its name from theirs, on Ipswich River, and at the west part of the Hamlet. One was shot there in 1747. Another was killed ten years after, east of Mile Brook, in the same parish. From this time, they began to disappear, and soon deserted the town.
DEER. These were abundant at the first coming of our ancestors. As they were valuable, they were often hunted.
51739. The law for preserving deer was read before the town, and they chose two persons to see it executed.
1770. It was voted, that the deer-reeves of Ipswich join with those of other towns, to prevent these animals in Chebacco Woods from being extirpated. A few of them were seen here as late as 1790. Soon after this, they disappeared.
FOXES. Some of these are now occasionally discovered. They are still mischievous in devouring poultry. For a long period, a price was set upon their heads.
1678. The town paid £3 10s. for killing seventy of them in the course of a year.

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WOODCHUCKS. These, also, had their turn of becoming obnoxious to the public.
1734. A premium of 1s. was voted for destroying a dozen of them. They are yet considerably numerous.

DOMESTICATED QUADRUPEDS

Such of these, as were formerly in common use, but not in modern years, are the goat and the ass. Ipswich, having good grazing land, soon abounded with cattle. Johnson said of them, 1646; "The Lord hath been pleased to increase them in cattle of late, insomuch, that they have many hundred quarters to spare yearly, and feed, at the latter end of summer, the towne of Boston with good beefe." As long as wolves and other beasts of prey infested the woods, the inhabitants had certain persons to take a constant care of their cattle and sheep, while out at pasture.
COWHERDS. 51661. Haniel Bosworth is to keep the herd of cows on the north side of the river, from the 1st of May to the 20th of October. He is to go out with them half an hour after sun-rise and to bring them home a little before sun-set, at 13s. a week, "a peck of corn a head at their going out, one pound of better or half peck of wheat in June, and the rest of his pay at the end of his time, whereof half to be paid in wheat or malt; the pay to be brought to his house within six days after demanded, or else to forfeit 6d. a head more." "Agreed with Henry Osborn to join Bosworth to keep the cows on the same terms. One of them to take the cows in Scott's Lane and to blow a horn at the meeting-house green in the morning."
1667. "Agreed with Haniel Bosworth to keepe the cow-herd on the north side of the river from the 22d of April to the last of October, to have for his wages 14s. a week, 12d. a head for the first paye, one pound of butter in June, and the rest at the end of the tyme, and for helpe in the spring and on the Lord's day, as in other years; and, if any that are warned to helpe him then, fail, they shall forfeit 2s. 6d. a daye, if warned the night before."

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1670. Every cow of the herd is to have a bell.
SHEPHERDS. 51661. The town hire Robert Roberts to keep a flock of sheep on Jeffrey's Neck from April 8th to end of October, and to have one person follow them constantly. He is to have £13. Robert Whitman is to keep another flock on the north side of the river, the same period, at 10s. a week in "half English and half Indian" grain.
1662. "Whereas there are three shepherds hired to keep the sheep, and on the south side of the river the common being overburdened, and the north side having too few, it is ordered, that about one hundred of those men's sheep, who came last (they being full before) shall be brought to the flock on the north side, it being intended that the flocks be equal and the pay equally proportioned on the sheep."
1668. Some persons complain, that their shepherd had so placed their sheep, as to have them exposed to be destroyed by wolves.
1702. The shepherds are to have cottages adjoining the sheep-walks so as to be near their flocks. It was a custom for each shepherd to put his flock in a pen every Friday afternoon, so that the owners might take what they wanted for family use or for market. While cowherds and shepherds were thus employed, the appearance of their respective routes and places of grazing must have been quite pastoral, and suggested those placid associations, which we experience, when reading of such scenes.
It was enacted by the General Court, 1642, that if a dog kill a sheep, double damages shall be paid by his owner and the dog be hung immediately. This has some resemblance to the hanging of dogs for witchcraft, as was done in this vicinity 1693.
1831. There were the following animals in Ipswich; 187 horses, 404 oxen, 700 cows, 285 steers and heifers, 458 sheep, and 284 swine.

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PRICES OF GRAIN AND OTHER ARTICLES FOR TAXES,
AS ORDERED BY THE LEGISLATURE

1634. Corn 4s. 6d. 1635. No Indian corn, except for seed, is to be sold above 6s. till after harvest. 1640. Corn 5s.; Summer Wheat 7s.; Rye 6s. 8d. It appears that the two latter sorts of grain had not been previously raised in sufficient quantity to be paid for colonial expenses. It may be here properly stated, that for over a half century, it was common to use the phrase, "all sorts of corn," meaning the several kinds of grain.
1646. Wheat, 4s.; Barley, 4s. 6d.; Rye, 3s. 6d.; Peas, 3s. 6d.; Corn, 2s. 8d.; Cows, four years old and upwards, £5 each; Heifers and Steers, £4; and the same of two and three years, 50s.; of one and two years, 30s.; Goats above one year, 8s.; Swine, 20s.; Asses £2, and other property in proportion.
1653. Every mare, horse, or gelding of four years old and upwards, £16; of three years, £10; of two years, £7; of one year, £3 10s. Poll tax, 20d.
1660. Wheat, 5s.; Barley and Barley Malt, 4s. 6d.; Peas and Rye, 4s.; Corn, 3s.
1668. Shingles 19s. a thousand.
1673. Sheep, £5 a score. They had been estimated higher. Wheat, 5s.; Barley and Barley Malt and Rye, 4s.; Peas and Corn, 3s.
1675. One quarter of the amount paid in produce, is to be subtracted for money.
1678. All corn or grain is to be brought to the deposit of the treasurer, at the charge of the town whence it is sent.
1685. Wheat, 5s. 6d.; Barley and Barley Malt, 4s. 6d.; Rye and Peas 4s; Corn, 3s.; Oats, 2s.
1689. One third discounted for cash.
1690. As a loan to the country, Pork 7 farthings and Beef 3d. a pound; Pork £3 and Beef 36s. a barrel.
1698. Wheat, 5s.; Peas, 4s.; Barley and Barley Malt, Corn, and Rye, 3s.; Oats, 1s. 6d.
1702. Flax and sheep's wool 1s. a pound.
1705. Beans, 5s.
1715. Rates to be paid, one-third in money and two-thirds in grain. Wheat, 5s.; Rye, Barley, and Malt, 4s.; Corn, 3s. 6d.; Oats, 2s.
1751. Rye, 3s.; Corn, 2s. 6d.; Barley, 2s. 3d.; Flax, 8d. a pound.

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AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS

These are nearly the same in number as they were formerly, though much improved.
1637. Ploughing was a distinct employment, and particular men made it their chief business in its season. 46Then, there were only thirty-seven ploughs in all Massachusetts. Now, every farmer has one or more. For a century and a half, the tumbril, a sort of cart, fitted to carry large loads, was named in the inventories of deceased farmers' estates. During all this period, our fathers never used the wagon. This began to be employed in Ipswich about forty-five years ago [ca. 1790]. Such a fact shows the reason why much greater burdens are drawn now than in former times. Previously to the introduction of wagons, and while carts only were used, the backs of cattle were subject to more injuries than at present. Then, loads would often bear down behind or before, and strain and occasionally kill such animals.

FENCING

51635. Paling, or narrow boards or poles, sharpened on the top, were often used to enclose ground.
1653. As the General Court has ordered the selectmen of every town to regulate their fences, it is ordered that all persons, concerned and living in Ipswich, shall, before April 20th, have their fences in a good state, (except farms of one hundred acres,) made of pales well nailed or pinned, or of five rails well fitted, or of stone wall three and a half feet high at least, or with a ditch three or four feet wide, with a substantial bank, having two rails or a hedge, or some equivalent, on penalty of 5s. a rod and 2s. a week for each rod while neglected.

FISH

Animals of this sort were very abundant when Agawam was settled. Of their number, salmon and bass have nearly, and

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sturgeon have entirely, disappeared from our waters. There were companies, of Matthew Craddock and others, who caught large quantities of sturgeon for the European market, in Ipswich, while it was owned by Indians. The sounds of these fish were made into isinglass. Smith remarked of Massachusetts; "No river where there is not plenty of sturgeon or salmon or both, which are to be had in abundance, observing but their season. But if a man will goe at Christmas to gather cherries in Kent, though there be plenty in summer, he may be deceived; so here these plenties have each their season."

SERPENTS

These, of various colors and kinds, have thinned off as population has spread and manifested its perpetual hatred to them. Among them the Rattle-snake is most dreaded because of its most deadly bite. This creature continues to be seen, though not so frequently as in years past, in Essex and Hamilton woods, formerly a part of Ipswich.

FOWL

Animals of this sort have become far less numerous than they were two centuries past. Some of them, as the Eagle, Crane, and Partridge, have grown scarce. Others, as the Swan and Wild Turkey, have disappeared from this vicinity. In the summer and autumn, Plovers, Curlews, Yellow-legs, Snipes and Sand-pipers, and in winter, Wild Ducks abound. It was anciently the practice for persons in several parts of the colony, to obtain grants of water privileges, and to furnish themselves with suitable gear, for the purpose of taking fowl. In accordance with this is the following.
51663. Granted Mr. Jonathan Wade, nine acres of water in Chebacco pond, by the mouth of the river running out of it,

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and two rods of ground about the water by the side of this pond.
1666. He relinquishes this grant.
The subsequent premiums show, that the owners of grain fields and certain of the feathered tribe differed about having all things in common.
51734. Voted that 12d. a dozen be paid for the heads of such blackbirds and blue jays, as shall be killed within the town, "upon producing them to the treasurer," who is to destroy them, so as to prevent their being paid for twice.
1827. Voted that ten cents be paid for every crow killed within the limits of this place.

MINERALS

None of these have been discovered here, except bog-ore. This has been dug in several parts of Ipswich.
1658. The town grant "liberty to the inhabitants, with such others as shall join with them, to set up a blomary for to make iron at Chebacco River."

PUBLIC WAYS

These are put down as found on the Town Records.
1635. One to be laid out through J. Spencer's and N. Easton's land, on south of the river.
"Pathway which leads to Merrimack." This probably went up Brook Lane, where the old road to Newbury used to run. Instead of a pathway, it has long been the great thoroughfare to Maine.
High Street. Ways to the Mill, to Great Neck, to Chebacco, and to Jeffrey's Neck. A road of four rods wide is reserved through John Tuttle's one hundred and fifty acres, east of Mile River to the Common.
1636. Ways to Labor-in-vain Meadows, and to Muddy River.
1637. Lanes from Mill Street to High Street, to Saltonstall's farm, and Bridge Lane.
1638. It is voted, that a general fence be made from the

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end of the town to Egypt River, and from the east end in the way to Jeffrey's Neck, to be done at the charge of those who own the land within said compass. Liberty is granted them to fell trees to make the fence, from lands ungranted.
A highway is to be laid out beyond Mr. Appleton's. West End Street.
1639. Way from High Street to Bridge Street is to be drained by means of ditches. Brook Street.
1641. Way to be through the farm of Matthew and John Whipple. This is the eastern stage route in Hamilton. It was long called the Bay Road, because leading to Boston, which was then strictly considered in Massachusetts Bay to the exclusion of towns to the north of Chelsea.
1651. Country road through Mr. Appleton's farm. A way between Mr. Tuttle's swamp and ends of the lots; another to Norton and Paine's Neck and the Marshes; and another through Robert Kinsman's land; one, a rod and a half wide, to Robinson's Neck.
1655. A way through Goodman Procter's land to Goodman Foster's marsh.
1656. A road and foot-bridge are to be made, leading to Castle Neck.
1657. A road is to be laid out from the further side of Chebacco Ferry to Robert Cross's and also to Goodwife Haffield's bridge, through Mr. Rogers' ox pasture. A way through Thomas Burnam's ground across the swamp.
1658. A road is to run through Mr. Saltonstall's forty acres and part of John Andrews' farm, one rod and a half wide.
1660. A foot-way is to be laid out from the road at Heartbreak Hill, and run to the farms and common lands, where it hath been used.
1661. Daniel Warner has a way allowed through his six acres by Saunders' Brook. "Lots laid out at Jeffrey's Neck, to have their high-way at the head of them." Scott's Lane.
1662. A road is to run to Samuel Symonds' land, near Pleasant Pond.
1665. A way through Wm. Whitred's farm.
1666. One through Samuel Perley's land.
1667. Way to Green's Point.
1669. One through Mr. Eppes' marsh.
1677. One from Mr. Baker and Robert Lord's marsh to

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the road from the town to Reedy Marsh. Another from Mr. Norton's farm is to be two rods wide.
1678. A road from the Windmill to Haffield's Bridge.
1681. One, a rod and a half wide, to Robinson's Creek.
1696. A way is laid out to Thomas Treadwell senior's house.
1697. One through John Cogswell senior's farm. Another is ordered to Perkins's Island.
1699. The town resolve, that all their country roads shall be four rods wide, except where they lead through an individual’s land, and then they shall be two rods in width, if he make the way passable; if not, they are to be four. A road is to be made from Gloucester line to John Cogswell's upland.
1702. A way of two rods wide, is to pass through Geo. Gidding's farm.
1703. One to John Emerson's farm.
1706. Another through Thomas Hammond's farm, by Rowley line.
1730. A road from Lamson's Bridge to Gravelly Brook.
1741. One from the house of Daniel Warner to the country road.
1745. Another to lead to the Town Landing.
1753. A way from North Common Field gate to Col. Berry's farm is accepted.
1757. One from Solomon Gidding's gate to Jacob Procter's causeway is accepted.
1758. Another from Solomon Smith's to Wenham Ford is allowed.
1760. A way is to be from North gate by John Baker's, through P. Kinsman's land to Chebacco road.
1761. One is to pass through land of Isaac Smith and Paul Dodge.
1764. Voted to have a road through the westerly part of North Common Fields through Wm. Dodge's farm, to the Sluice Creek.
1774. A road from Thomas Adams's barn to the Hamlet meeting-house, and another through Saltonstall's farm from Swamp Bridge to the country road, are reported.
1787. A road is to pass through Jonathan Lamson's land, beginning at Nathaniel Raymon's house, and coming to the road by Thomas Millet's house.
1789. It is reported that the way from the foot of Maxey's

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hill to Gidding's corner, which had been closed up, belonged to the town for they had formerly maintained it. This road was soon re-opened and continues.
A way with gates is granted, leading from the road by Moses Conant's to Boxford.
1803. One in Chebacco, over Procter's Point from Gloucester, is accepted.
1805. Another from Green's Point to Town Landing, is laid out.
1806. A private way over land of Samuel Hardy, running partly to Hog Island road is reported.
1807. A way, two rods wide, is to run from Pingrey's Plain to Muddy River bridge.
1810. One is laid out through Oliver Cogswell's land. The old way through his land is to be discontinued.
1814. Voted to accept a way through lands of John D. Andrews, Asa Andrews, and John Heard, who give the land and fencing. Another is to run to Nathan Brown's marsh, at his own expense.
1817. A way is accepted from the gate of the Newburyport turnpike, over David Hobbs's land to Topsfield line. A road from Chebacco to Manchester. One from Topsfield way to Wm. Warner's house, is accepted.
1823. A road which was granted in 1753, to the town's farm, is allowed.
1824. Another is to run from Fowler's lane to Northfield common.
Had it been fixed law and practice from the beginning of Ipswich and other ancient towns, to have their roads sufficiently broad and straight, there would have been far less contention and expense, than have occurred of late years. To begin a thing well, is much better than to begin it ill and leave it to be rectified by others. We should do for posterity what we think our ancestors should have done for us.

FERRY

This was kept over Chebacco river before 1657, when the ferriage was 2d. a passenger.
1697. The same is to be paid for one person, and 4d. for each horse. This ferry ceased about 1700, when a bridge was built.

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BRIDGES

1635. One for foot passengers; 1641, it had been renewed and widened; was repaired 1663, and in 1700, when it was called the Great Bridge. It appears to have passed over the Town River.
1644. Reedy Marsh.
1655. One at the creek near Castle Neck.
1656. Haffield's.
1665. Mile Brook. One between Ipswich and Rowley; another by Daniel Warner's.
1666. Horse-bridge over Chebacco River by Gloucester. It was broken down by a storm in 1672, and repaired.
1668. One to be erected over the river, near the mills.
1678. Perkins's -- Labor-in-vain -- Egypt River.
1681. Saltonstall's -- Black Brook.
1696. Boarman's.
1700. Bridge built over Chebacco Ferry. One to be made at Burnam's creek.
1730. Cart bridge, built over the river by Jonathan Lamson and others.
1757. One of rock is to be at "Bridge Craft."
1762. Appleton's to be rebuilt with stone.
1764. Voted to rebuild the town and county bridge six or eight feet wider. Hon. John Choate was on the committee for this business, after whom the new bridge was named. It cost the town £500. The county paid as much more. It is strong and neat, having two arches with one solid pier in the bed of the river.
1770. One at Muddy River to be rebuilt with stone.
1811. Voted $1500 to rebuild the great bridge at Chebacco and repair its causeway in conjunction with the county. Voted afterwards $1000 more to finish them.
1832. After a long contention and several litigations, a bridge is finished over the river, near Smith's mills, which cost $2500.

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CANALS AND CUTS

51652. "Granted Thomas Clark and Reginal Foster, that when they shall have cut through a passage from this river into Chebacco River, of ten feet wide and soe deepe as a lighter may pass through laden, and to make a ford and foote-bridge over, that then the town have given unto them £10 towards said passage."
1682. "Granted to any of the inhabitants to perfect cutting the cut, that comes up to Mr. Eppes' bridge, if they will submit to the selectmen, yearly, the setting of the toll for those who pass through and who do not help cut it."
1694. "Granted that such persons of Ipswich, as will, may have liberty to cut the cut through on the hither side of Castle Neck; and if any pass through, who do not help do it, they shall pay for a passage as the selectmen set the price." "Whoever will cut the cut through the marsh by Mr. Eppes' sufficient for boats to pass through laden, shall have liberty. Such as pay about 5s. towards doing it, shall pass free. Such as pay nothing, shall be charged 3d. in money for a cord of wood, or load of hay, or ton of other loading."
1820. A company became incorporated for having a canal from Ipswich to Essex. It was made navigable early in 1821. Its length is about half a mile. It commences at Fox Creek and runs to Chebacco River. It cost near $1100. This stock is divided into twenty-seven shares of forty dollars each, and pays nearly six per cent. on the original amount. As an inlet to Essex from Merrimack River for ship timber, it has kept this article down lower than it would be, had dependence been placed solely on what the vicinity would supply.
Prices of freight through this canal. — Oak timber seventeen cents, and pine fourteen cents a ton. Oak sawn stuff of an inch thick, forty cents M., and of other thicknesses in proportion. Pine sawn stuff of one inch thick, thirty cents M.; hard wood thirty cents, and pine twenty cents a cord. Hogshead staves seventy-five cents, and barrel staves forty cents M. Hogshead hoop-poles one dollar, and barrel hoop-poles seventy-five cents M. Clapboards, forty cents, and shingles ten cents M. Each light gondola five cents, and every ton of loading fifteen cents.

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MUNICIPAL CONCERNS

As the age and population of Ipswich increased, so did its relations, necessities, and offices. No man should ever take upon himself a public trust with any other motive, than to promote the best good of the community. In order to avoid the common and too much deserved charge, "Corporations have no souls," the inhabitants of each town should be willing that their officers should transact their pecuniary business on principles of justice. It is often the case, that, for the sake of avoiding the undeserved reproach of a March meeting, such officers are tempted to haggle and shuffle, to do for their constituents what they would be ashamed of as individuals.
181636. The General Court allow, that the freemen of every plantation, shall not only have power to grant lots of land, but also to make orders for their own regulation not opposed to colonial laws; to assess and collect fines for breach of their rules, not above 20s., and choose their several officers.
TOWN OFFICERS. Some of these will be preceded by the year, when first seen on the records, though most of them were elected before.
1637. "The Seven Men." 1638. "The Eleven Men." As to the origin of these, the following is offered.
37When a church was gathered at New Haven in 1639, the Rev. J. Davenport directed the brethren "to select eleven of their most godly men, as a nomination for church pillars, that there might be no blemish in church work." These were to choose seven among themselves, because it is read in Proverbs, "Wisdom hath hewn out her seven pillars." Here we very probably have the reason for the number of eleven and seven men, as contained not merely on the records of Ipswich, but on those of other ancient towns. So closely connected were the civil and ecclesiastical concerns of our ancestors, so fixed were they in having no person hold any social trust, unless a professor of religion, that they would not hesitate to apply the same distinctive names to their chief men, as officers of the community, which they bore in relation to the church. There can be little doubt, that the selecting of such individuals originally, gave rise to the term select, as applied to the superintendents of

Page 56

town affairs. Not a few expressions, which we often use without tracing them to their source, were once associated in other minds with important occasions. At first the Selectmen were elected only for three months. They continued to be seven till 1723, when they were five. The next year and afterwards to 1741, they were restored to the old number.
Town Clerk. 1636, Daniel Dennison. He is to have 6d. for every entrance of land.
Sarveyors and Constables. Each constable was required in 1646, to have, as a sign of his office, a staff, five feet or five feet and a half long, tipped on the upper end with five or six inches of brass. 1687. The constable at Chebacco is to have on black staff, there being two others in town.
1641. Giles Firman is appointed by the General Court for Ipswich, to grant summons and attachment in civil actions, the same as a clerk of writs.
Treasurer. 1642, Robert Paine. Such an officer, in 1695, had 1d. on £1, of all he received and paid.
1646. Commissioner of Taxes begins and continues many years. His duty was to act with the Selectmen in making out the tax lists.
1661. Hog-Reeves. There was a pound for swine, which damaged cornfields, in 1635. In 1641, each inhabitant is allowed to let out from one to four hogs, according to his property.
1677. Sealer of Weights and Measures.
Tythingmen. Twenty-five of these are chosen. Were such guardians of the public morals as vigilent and active now, as they were formerly, many who are bold and unrestrained in their vices, would be brought to justice.
1678. Packer, Pounders, and Town Crier. Each town is required, in 1642, to have a crier, who is to have 2d. for every article he proclaims.
1681. Clerk of the Market and Leather-Sealer. — 1686. Culler of Boards and Staves. — Corder of Wood. — 1691. Gauger. — 1693. Fence-Viewers. — 1694. Hay-Wards. — 1698. Overseers of the Poor, who were generally the Selectmen. — 1715. Culler of Fish. — 1739. Deer-Reeves. — 1760. Surveyors of Boards and Timber. — 1761. Six Wardens, three for the town parishes, one for Chebacco and another for the Hamlet. Their duty was to see the Sabbath kept orderly. They were elected till after 1778. — Clerk of the Hay-market.

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1801. Besides the preceding town officers, are the Fish Committee, Measurers of Grain and Salt, Cullers of Bricks.
This year, The town Clerk had ten dollars, the Treasurer seventeen, and Selectmen, serving as Overseers and Assessors, had each twenty-five dollars annually for their services.
1805. Fire-Wards.
REGULATIONS. 1635. No timber or "clayboards" are to be carried out of the town without the consent of the freemen, nor any timber sawn or unsawn, riven or unriven, on pain of forfeiting the same. This town, with the rest, is required to have a peck and a bushel measure and weights sealed by the marshal of Boston.
1641. It is ordered that every sale or exchange of house and land shall be recorded on the town book.
1642. Whoever leaves carrion twenty-four hours, so as to draw wolves in or annoy people, shall pay 5s. An order is to be put on the meeting-house against selling powder and guns to Indians.
1646. Mechanics are required to assist farmers, when there is danger of losing part of a crop.
1649. As some were dissatisfied, that tradesmen only were allowed to fell white oaks for their business, it is ordered that none shall use such liberty as to any kind of trees without leave of the moderator, on penalty of 6d.
1820. Inhabitants are allowed to sit in such meetings with their hats on.
MATTERS OF MORALITY. 1642. The Seven men are to see that children, neglected by their parents, are employed, learned to read and "understand the principles of religion and the capital laws of this country," and, if necessary, be bound out to service.
1653. The law against Sabbath-breaking is posted up on the meeting-house.
1661. As an inhabitant of Ipswich, living at a distance, absented himself with his wife from public worship, the General Court empower the Seven men to sell his farm so that they may live nearer the sanctuary and be able more con-

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veniently to attend on its religious services. Individuals are appointed to keep order in the meeting-house.
1670. Constables are instructed to prevent young persons from being out late in the evening, especially Sabbath, lecture, and training-day evenings.
1672. Laborers are forbidden to have intoxicating liquors.
1678. All persons in town are required to have some visible employment.
1681. Single persons, who are under no government, are ordered to put themselves under the care of some head of a family. Daniel Weldron is required to return to his wife according to law. An inhabitant is complained of by a tythingman, because he had had a servant many years and had not taught him to read.
1738. The act for reformation of manners is read at the annual town meeting, and so continues to be till after 1771.
1777. It is voted that the ministers take turns in opening town meetings with prayer. This custom is still observed.
As we reflect on the moral transactions of this and other ancient towns, we are compelled to notice one fact, however ominous of evil, however discouraging to our hope. This fact is, that, as such communities have increased in numbers, wealth, and years, so have they departed from the justifiable strictness of their ancestors. We look in vain for that measure of vigilance, promptness, and activity, which the officers of each corporation anciently manifested against the workers of iniquity. We look in vain for the ready obedience, which the vicious were constrained to yield to the commands of their social authorities. Our disease is open before us. Wise and happy shall we be, if we apply the needed remedies.

FIRE DEPARTMENT

51642. "As much hurt hath been done by fire, through neglect of having ladders in readiness at men's houses, and also by the insufficiency of chimneys and due cleaning of them, every householder shall have a ladder in constant readiness,

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twenty feet long, at his house." As wooden chimneys plastered with clay, and thatched roofs, were common then, such an order was highly necessary.
1649. "Whereas complaint has been made of the great danger, that may accrue to the inhabitants by reason of some men's setting stacks of hay near the dwelling-houses, if fire should happen, — ordered that whosoever hath any hay or English corn in straw by their houses, or have set any haystacks within three rods of their houses, shall remove it within six days after notice, on fine of 20s."
1804. As smoking in the streets had become prevalent, and thus endangered buildings, it is forbidden by the town in the penalty of one dollar for each offence.
ENGINE. 1804, Jan. 3d. The South parish vote to unite with the first, and build a house for the engine bought by subscription.
1808. Voted to have four fire-ladders and four hooks with chains, two of each to be kept in the body of the town, one of each at Chebacco and Line Brook.
ANOTHER ENGINE. 1821, March 13th. The Selectmen are to purchase an engine and have a house made for it. The cost of this engine was four hundred and fifty dollars. It made two for Ipswich. Well fitted and sufficient fire departments are good economy for all towns. The fact that not a few of our small towns have no preparation for fires, betokens neither public spirit nor prudence.

LIGHTNING-RODS

These, being invented by Dr. Franklin about 1747, have been but little used in any part of Ipswich. There has been none in Essex or in Hamilton. The only one recollected eighty years since, was on the old jail. There are now seven in Ipswich. A probable reason for their not being formerly more introduced here, was the prejudice, very prevalent through the Colonies, that the erection of them upon buildings was a resistance to Providence, because attracting the electric fluid from its direct course. It is well that such Mahommedan fatality has not the influence it once had, in preventing the improvements of science.

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MARKET

181637. Venison is forbidden to be bought without leave of each town. No cakes or buns are to be sold, except for burials or marriages.
1672. As some Indians stole hogs from the English to sell, the latter are required to mark one ear of such animals as belong to them, and the former to have no mark for theirs; and, when bringing pork for sale to the English, "to bring with them the swine's ears." The market here is not fully supplied, excepting with the article of wood.

HAY-SCALES

1761. Doctor John Calef is granted a spot of land to build these on, at the south corner of Back Lane.
1792. Joseph Lord has leave to set up hay-scales.
1832. Instead of the high framed ones, two of the patent platform scales are made. This alteration is much for convenience and neatness.

TOWN SEAL

1681. A seal and stamp is bought with these letters

GOODS FOUND

1712. Articles, picked up, are prized and entered on the town book, so that the loser may recover them. This was long a standing custom till after 1735. It was not so easy for the fraudulent finder to indulge his disposition then, as it is now.

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