HISTORY OF IPSWICH

NAME

The name given to Ipswich by Indians, was Agawam, sometimes spelt differently.* With this name, no doubt, many successive generations of the natives associated thoughts of childhood and of riper age, of sports and toils, of ease and adventures, of safety and perils, of peace and war, of joys and sorrows. It was a word applied by the Aborigines to several portions of Massachusetts. It seems to have denoted places, where fish of passage resorted. Captain Smith informs us, that after he had made out a draught of this country in 1614, with the names which had been given to its different divisions, Prince Charles had Agawam exchanged for Southhampton. This name is on the Captain's map, prefixed to his account of New England.
181634, Aug. 4th. Agawam is called Ipswich, being a town in England, by the Court of Assistants, "in acknowledgment of the great honor and kindness done to our people, who took shipping there." Thus altered from an appellation, long familiar to the ears, and long dear to the hearts of the Agawames, it received another more familiar and dearer to Englishmen.

* See Preface

SITUATION AND EXTENT

Before Europeans came to this country, Agawam reached from Merrimack River on the north, to Naumkeag River, now

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of Salem, on the south; from Cochichawick, afterwards named Andover, on the west, and to the sea-side on the east. When it was settled by Mr. Winthrop and others, its boundaries on the north and west remained the same; but those on the east, were its own bay and that of Squam, and the town of Gloucester; and on the south were Manchester, Wenham, and Danvers, all four of which latter places were then villages belonging to Salem. Johnson remarks on this territory, "The Sagamoreship or Earldom of Agawam, now by our English nation called Essex."
181636. Wessacumcon, or Newbury, being settled, the court order, that Ipswich shall run six miles into the country. As population flowed in and spread over its surface, as corresponding necessities arose and reasons for separation successively prevailed, this town became reduced to its present size.
The latitude of Ipswich, as taken at the Court-house, is 42° 41' north, and longitude, at the same place, 70° 50' west. This place, now having Rowley on the north, Boxford and Topsfield on the west, Hamilton and Essex on the south, and the ocean on the east, has an area of 25,478 acres. Of this 3,579 acres are water, 1,509 sand on Castle Neck and Plumb Island. There are 72 miles of roads.
Before we fully attend to the various concerns of the English, it may not be out of place to give a parting notice to the Indians, who owned and occupied the land, on which their more intelligent and powerful successors entered.

INDIAN INHABITANTS

When we look back on the Aborigines, as the sole proprietors of our soil, on the places which once knew them, but are now to know them no more for ever, feelings of sympathy and sadness come over our souls. Such reflection, though not presenting us with monuments of the civilized arts, nor with the productions of literature, nor with the improvements of science, to secure lasting fame, still sets before us, in the light of history, a tribe of men immortal as ourselves, who have irrevocably disappeared from the scenes and concerns of earth.
311611. Capt. Edward Harlow and Nicholas Hobson sailed

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for North Virginia. They touch at Agawam, where the natives treat them more kindly than others had done.
33These people must have been far more numerous at this visit, than they were subsequently, because a plague swept off most of the New England Indians about 1617.
391629. They inform Governor Endicott, that they are fearful of an invasion from the Tarrentines or Eastern Indians. He immediately despatches a boat with Hugh Brown and others, to defend them. Such aid was afforded them several times. 22June 13th. "Lord's day, in the morning, the Sagamore of Agawam and one of his men came on board our ship and stayed with us all day." This chief was called Masconnomo, but more commonly Masconnomet, and sometimes John. 2It is evident from the account given by Masconnomet's grand-children, when they received of different towns compensation for land, which he had owned, that his jurisdiction was as extensive, as already described. About 1630, he was at Saugus, and with other Indians witnessed the sale of Nahant and other land by black William, to William Witter for two pestle-stones.
181631, July 5th. "The Sagamore of Agawam is banished from every Englishman's house for the space of one year, on the penalty of ten beaver skins." 22Aug. 8th. "The Tarrentines, to the number of 100, came in three canoes, and in the night assaulted the wigwam of the Sagamore of Agawam, slew seven men, and wounded John Sagamore, and James, and some others, (whereof some died after,) and rifled a wigwam of Mr. Craddock's men, kept to catch sturgeon, took away their nets and biscuit." 34The wife of James and others were carried away captives by their enemies. According to report, Masconnomet had slain some, belonging to the people of these invaders. John and James, previously mentioned, were sachems, the former of a tribe on the west of Saugus, and the latter of a tribe in that town. It is very likely, that they had come, as allies, to Masconnomet, because he often dreaded an attack from his eastern foes. 22Sept. 17th. Abraham Shurd of Pemaquid, sends to Agawam James's wife, who had been recently captured. He writes that wampum and beaver-skins are demanded for her ransom.

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181638, March 13th. Masconnomet sells his fee in the soil of Ipswich to John Winthrop, Jr., in behalf of its inhabitants, for £20.
401639. In the southwest part of Ipswich, now appertaining to Middletown, there was an Indian plantation. This contained a hill, called, 1661, Will Hill, from old William, an Indian, who, 1660, seems to have owned considerable land.
18March 5th. Masconnomet is to have his gun mended, which the Governor's servant broke. He is also allowed powder to kill fowl and deer. He acknowledges himself satisfied with what Mr. Winthrop paid him for his right to the territory of this town.
1642, Sept. The Agawames and other tribes are to have their arms restored, having been taken from them because it was suspected that they intended to rise against the English.
1644, March 8th. Besides four other Sagamores, Masconnomet puts himself, his subjects, and possessions under the protection and government of Massachusetts, and agrees to be instructed in the Christian religion. The following questions are submitted to these chiefs, who give the accompanying replies.
1st. Will you worship the only true God, who made heaven and earth, and not blaspheme? Ans. "We do desire to reverence the God of the English and to speak well of Him, because we see He doth better to the English, than other gods do to others." 2d. Will you cease from swearing falsely? Ans. "We know not what swearing is." 3d. Will you refrain from working on the Sabbath, especially within the bounds of Christian towns? Ans. "It is easy to us, — we have not much to do any day, and we can well rest on that day." 4th. Will you honor your parents and all your superiors? Ans. "It is our custom to do so, — for inferiors to honor superiors." 5th. Will you refrain from killing any man without just cause and just authority? Ans. "This is good, and we desire so to do." 6th. Will you deny yourselves fornication, adultery, incest, rape, sodomy, buggery, or bestiality? Ans. "Though some of our people do these things occasionally, yet we count them naught and do not allow them." 7th. Will you deny yourselves stealing? Ans. "We say the same to this as to the 6th question." 8th. Will you

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allow your children to learn to read the word of God, so that they may know God aright and worship him in his own way? Ans. "We will allow this as opportunity will permit, and, as the English live among us, we desire so to do." 9th. Will you refrain from idleness? Ans. "We will." After Masconnomet and the other chiefs had thus answered, they present the Court with twenty-six fathoms of wampum. The Court, in return, order them five coats, two yards each, of red cloth, and a pot full of wine.
21652, April 17th. Peckanaminet, alias Ned, an Indian, and sometimes called Acocket, of Ipswich, had recently mortgaged for £30 his land, about eight miles square, on the further side of Merrimack, lying eight or ten miles from Andover. This Indian was aged 68 in 1676. He had a brother, Humphrey. Both of them, like most of their red brethren, possesing land and surrounded by whites and tempted by rum, were continually distressed through their improvident debts.
51655, Feb. 21st. "Left to the seven men to grant to the Sagamore six acres of planting land, where they shall appoint, for to plant, but not propriety to but himself.
1658, June 18th. "Granted the Sagamore's widow to enjoy that parcel of land, which her husband had fenced in, during the time of her widowhood." Thus we have notice of Masconnomet's decease. He had lived to behold his people almost extinct, and to perceive his power dwindled to the very emblem of weakness. As the last of the Chiefs, who ruled over the Agawames, his feeble and broken sceptre descended with him to the grave. He was buried on Sagamore Hill, now within the bounds of Hamilton. His gun and other valued implements were interred with his body. 18March 6th. Idle curiosity, wanton, sacrilegious sport, prompted an individual to dig up the remains of this chief and carry his skull on a pole through Ipswich streets. Such an act of barbarity was severely frowned on, and speedily visited with the retributions of civil justice.
51671, Feb. 21st. "Granted Ned two or three acres to plant, during his life, in some convenient place, if he fence it sufficiently with stone wall.
1678, Dec. 23d. Several Indians, living in a wigwam, are furnished with some provisions by the town.

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1683, Feb. 27th. Surveyors are empowered to lay out a small quantity of land for Ned and his family and the old Sagamore's daughter and her children, to improve for them, during the town's pleasure.
281686. John Dunton was accompanied from Wenham to Ipswich by an Indian, who gives him the common salutation of his tribe, —netop, friend. Mr. Dunton describes a funeral, which took place near Ipswich, and which shows the custom of the Agawames, in so solemn a service. When the mourners came to the grave, they laid the body near by, then sat down and lamented. He observed successive tears on the cheeks of old and young. After the body was laid in the grave, they made a second lamentation; then spread the mat, on which the deceased had died, over the grave; put the dish there, in which he had eaten, and hung a coat of skin on an adjacent tree. This coat none touched, but allowed it to consume with the dead. The relatives of the person, thus buried, had their faces blacked, as a sign of mourning.
51690, Feb 18th. Ned is still assisted by the town and is aged about 82. — Dec. 30th. Robert, an Indian, is similarly helped.
1726. There were three families, each having a wigwam back of Wigwam Hill at the Hamlet. It is probable, that, not long after this year, Indians disappeared from among the inhabitants of Ipswich. Had letters flourished among the Agawames, many of their transactions, fitted to excite pity and admiration, to draw forth censure and approval, would have been recorded on the pages of history. But such a privilege, with which a kind Providence has favored us, was not theirs. Hence no register exists to tell us where the red men, who once held undisputed sway over our soil, had their homes and corn-fields, their places of fishing and hunting, of feasting and amusement, their battle grounds, and their consecrated spots for council and for worship.

REMAINS OF THE AGAWAMES

SHELLS. In many places, and particularly on high land, abundance of clam shells have been ploughed up. These

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shells were undoubtedly carried thither with their contents, as food, by the natives.
TOMAHAWKS. These are stones of various species, averaging the length of a common-sized man's hand, with a place towards one end, where handles were fastened, and with the other end brought down to an edge. They continue to be frequently discovered in different spots. They were used by Indians before they obtained iron from Europeans, whom they called Chauquaquock, or "knife-men." Though rude, such weapons must have proved deadly to opposing foes.
GOUGES. These, of hard stones, are about half a foot long, and have one end sharpened. The process of manufacturing articles with them would be most tedious to the mechanic of our day, who is favored with the great improvements of art.
PESTLES AND MORTARS. These, composed of granite, have been occasionally disinterred. They were for such purposes as the pounding of dried berries and corn. There are relics, whose use is not certain. Some of them are stones nearly round and encircled with a groove for strings or withes. They were probably used in battle. Others are formed much like a small pear, with the slender end fitted for a string. They may have been worn as ear-drops by the natives, who were strangers to the factitious charms of gold and diamonds.
HEADS OF ARROWS. These are met with in great numbers. They are of a flinty substance and of several colors and sizes. They have been generally discovered on swells of land facing each other. This is an indication that some great battles were fought there. When such events were, who the parties engaged, what the cause of their conflict, the greatness of the slaughter, the number of captives, the results of the combat, are particulars once known to the tribes concerned, once related by fathers to their listening children; but now beyond the reach of our perception, though fresh in the remembrance of Him, "who will bring to light the hidden things of darkness."

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DEED

41 "I Masconnomet, Sagamore of Agawam, do by these presents acknowledge to have received of Mr. John Winthrop the sum of £20, in full satisfaction of all the right, property, and claim I have, or ought to have, unto all the land, lying and being in the Bay of Agawam, alias Ipswich, being so called now by the English, as well as such land, as I formerly reserved unto my own use at Chebacco, as also all other land, belonging to me in these parts, Mr. Dummer's farm excepted only; and I hereby relinquish all the right and interest I have unto all the havens, rivers, creeks, islands, huntings, and fishings, with all the woods, swamps, timber, and whatever else is, or may be, in or upon the said ground to me belonging: and I do hereby acknowledge to have received full satisfaction from the said John Winthrop for all former agreements, touching the premises and parts of them; and I do hereby bind myself to make good the aforesaid bargain and sale unto the said John Winthrop, his heirs and assigns for ever, and to secure him against the title and claim of all other Indians and natives whatsoever. Witness my hand.

28th of June, 1638

     Witness hereunto,
        John Joyliffe,
        James Downing,
        Thomas Coytimore,
        Robert Harding,
Masconnomet        
       
his mark."        

181639, Nov. 5th. Ipswich is required to pay John Winthrop, Jr. the £20 which he paid the Sagamore for his right to their land.
51705, Feb. 22d. "Voted, that Samuel Appleton, Esq., and our two Representatives treat with the Hon. Wait Winthrop, about Masconnomo's deed of Agawam, made to his father deceased, Governor of Connecticut.

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PLACE FIRST OCCUPIED AS THE TOWN

From the phraseology, used when grants of land were first made to people of Ipswich, it is evident that the Town, so denominated by way of distinction, was located on the Neck. This was immediately bounded on the east by what is now known as Jeffrey's Neck. It appears, that originally the whole neck, the western part of which was selected for the town, was called after the same person. It seems that William Jeffrey had given name to this neck, and also to the creek, afterwards Manchester, before Agawam was settled in 1633. To this point the following is adduced.
421628. Jeffrey and Burslem are assessed £2 towards the expenses of the expedition against Morton at Merry Mount. There can be but little doubt, that Jeffrey was, this year, a resident in the original bounds of Agawam, because no writer or document has shown, that he lived elsewhere, and two places within such territory very early received their names from his.
1634. Winthrop, speaking of Jeffrey's handing him a letter from Morton, calls him, "an old planter."
181666. William Jeffrey claims the Neck, of his name, in the limits of Ipswich. He is granted five hundred acres of land on the south side "of our patent, to be a final issue of all claims by virtue of any grant, heretofore made by any Indians whatsoever."

FIRST SETTLERS

For a considerable period from the permanent occupation of Agawam, no persons were considered as its inhabitants, without the consent of its freemen. This was a regulation throughout the colony, which preserved each community from the intrusion of the idle, contentious, and immoral. Were such a regulation now acted on by all our towns, not merely to guard against anticipated expenses of pauperism, but also to keep off the contagion of vice, so many of them would not be under one of the worst of tyrannies, even amid the praises of

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their freedom, a tyranny of being ruled by the votes of the unprincipled, who are ever ready to hinder the best good of society and to bring down upon it the curse of their iniquities.
22*1633, March. John Winthrop, Jr. and twelve others commence a settlement here. 17April 1st. The Court of Assistants forbid any to reside in this place, without their leave, except those already come. Then follows a list of them; viz. — Mr. John Winthrop, Jr., Mr. William Clerk, Robert Coles, Thomas Howlet, John Biggs, John Gage, Thomas Hardy, William Perkins, Mr. John Thorndike, and William Serjeant. Three are wanting to make up the first number. June 11th. Thomas Sellan has permission to become an inhabitant.

* The late excellent map of Ipswich mistakes in making its settlement in 1632.

221634, May. Before the people of Newton emigrated to Connecticut, "they sent men to Agawam and Merrimack, and gave out they would move." 34Rev. Thomas Parker and company out of Wiltshire, being about one hundred, and other new settlers, take up their abode here.
Besides the preceding individuals, are those on the following list, having the years, up to 1652, when they are first met with, as belonging to Ipswich. The spelling of their names is put down as they were found written.

1635
1637


1639
1642

1643
1648



1635




1636
1637
Andrews, Robert
Appleton, Samuel
Avery, Wm.
Archer, Henry
Andrews, John
Annable, John
Adams, Wm.
Andrews, Richard
Averil, Wm.
Appleton, John
Ayres, John

Bracey, Thomas, Mr.
Bradstreet, Dudley
Bradstreet, Humphrey
Bradstreet, Simon, Mr.
Bartholomew, Wm.
Bishop, Thomas
Bishop, Nathaniel



1638


1639






1640
1642




Bixbey, Nath'l.
Browning, Tho's.
Boreman, Tho's.
Brown, Edward
Burnam, John
Baker, John
Button, Matthias
Bird, Thos.
Belcher, Jeremy
Bellingham, Rich'd., Mr.
Bosworth, Nath'l.
Bird, Jathnell
Boreman, Sam'l.
Bachellor, Mr.
Brown, John
Beacham, Robert
Bitgood, Rich'd.
Bachellor, Henry
Brewer, Tho's.

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1643
1644
1647
1648




1649

1633
1634
1635


1636
1637




1638




1639


1642
1644

1648






1634
1635


1636
1638

1639
1642




Buckley, Wm.
Bridges, Edmund
Burnam, Thomas
Bosworth, Haniel
Bragg, Edward
Betts, Richard
Birdley, Gyles
Bishop, Job
Bixbey, Joseph

Carr, George
Curin, Mathias
Cross, John
Cogswell, John, Mr.
Covengton, John
Clark, Daniel
Clark, Thomas
Cross, Robert
Challis, Phillip
Colebeye, Arthur
Comesone, Symond
Cooley, John
Cartwright, Michael
Cachame, Henry
Crane, Robert
Comings, Isaac
Cachame, Edward
Chute, Lionel
Castell, Robert
Cowley, John
Chesson, Robert
Chapman, Edward
Chute, James
Catchame, John
Clark, Malachi
Choate, John
Cogswell, Wm.
Colborne, Robert

Dillingham, John
Dudley, Thomas, Mr.
Dudley, Samuel, Mr.
Dennison, Daniel, Mr.
Dorman, Thomas
Dix, Widow
Dane, John
Davis, John
Dane, John, Jr.
Duglas, Wm.
Davis, Richard
Dane, Francis
Day, Robert
1647
1648


1634

1638





1634


1635




1637
1638
1639


1642
1648


1635


1638


1639
1642
1648



1651


1635


1636


1637

Dennison, John
Dutch, Robert
Dix, Ralph

Elliot, —
Easton, Nicholas, Mr.
Emerson, Thomas
English, Wm.
Eppes, Dan'l., Mr.
Emerson, Joseph
Emerson, John

Franklin, Wm.
Fuller, John
Fawne, John, Mr.
Fuller, Wm.
Fowler, Philip
Foster, Wm.
Firman, Tho's., Mr.
French, Tho's., Mr.
French, Edward
French, Tho's., Jr.
Filbrick, Robert
Firman, Giles, Doct.
Farnum, Ralph
Fellows, Wm.
Foster, Abraham
French, John

Goodhue, Wm.
Gardner, Edmund
Giddinge, George
Graves, Robert
Gibson, Thomas
Greenfield, Samuel
Gilven, Thomas
Green, Henry
Gutterson, Wm.
Granger, Lancelot
Gilbert, Humphrey
Greene, Thomas
Griffen, Humphrey
Gillman, Edward

Hubbard, Wm., Mr.
Hassell, John
Haffield, Rich'd.
Hall, Samuel
Hart, Nathaniel
Harris, Thomas
Heldred, Wm.
Hayes, Robert

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1638
1639



1641

1642
1647

1648


1651

1633
1635



1636
1637

1635


1637
1638


1639
1642


1648

1635
1636
1637


1638
1640
1642


1643
1647
1648


Hovey, Daniel
Hauchet, John
Humphrey, ___
Huttley, Richard
Hadley, George
Hodges, Andrew
Hart, Thomas
Hoyt, John
Howe, James
Hunter, Robert
Heard, Luke
Heiphar, Wm.
Harris, Anthony
Harris, Thomas
Harindin, Edward

and before. Jeffrey, Wm.
Jackson, John
Johnson, John
Jordan, Francis
Jacob, Richard
Jennings, Richard
Jordan, Stephen

Knight, Alexander
Kent, Richard
Kinsman, Roberrt
Kemball, Richard
Kingsbury, Henry
Knight, Wm., Mr.
Kemball, Henry
Knowlton, John
Knowlton, Wm.
Knowlton, Tho's.
Knight, Aleph
Kemball, Rich'd., Jr.

Lancton, Roger
Lord, Robert
Lamson, Wm.
Ladd, Daniel
Lord, Katherine, widow
Lumkin, Richard
Lee, John
Lee, Tho's.
Lumas, Edward
Lumas, Richard
Low, Tho's.
Lovell, Tho's.
Long, Sam'l.
Lancton, Joseph
Long, Phillip

1651

1634
1635



1636
1637
1638


1639

1634
1636

1637
1638

1639

1635

1634


1635

1636
1637


1638
1639

1640
1642




1648





1649


Layton, John
Leigh, Joseph

Manning, John
Moody, Wm.
Metcalf, Joseph
Mussey, John
Mussey, Robert
Merriall, John
Mosse, Joseph
Morse, John
Medcalf, Tho's.
Miller, Wm.
Mohey, Robert

Newman, John
Norton, John, Mr.
Norton, Wm., Mr.
Northe, John
Newmarch, John
Nichols, Richard
Newman, Tho's.

Osgood, Christopher

Perkins, John
Perkins, John, Jr.
Parker, Thomas, Mr.
Procter, John
Perley, Allen
Pebody, Francis
Pike, ___, Mr.
Purrier, Wm.
Perkins, Isaac
Paine, Wm.
Pitney, James
Preston, Roger
Paine, Robert
Perry, Thomas
Pettis, John
Pingrey, Moses
Pinder, Henry
Podd, Daniel
Perkins, Jacob
Pinder, John
Pingrey, Aaron
Podd, Samuel
Pearpoynt, Robert
Pendleton, Bryan, Mr.
Prichard, Wm.
Palmer, George
Potter, Anthony

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1637

1634
1636
1637

1638
1642
1644
1648




1633
1634


1635







1636


1637
1638




1639

1641
1642


1647
1648








1635

Quilter, Mark

Robinson, John
Rogers, Nath'l., Mr.
Reading, Joseph
Rawlinsone, Tho's.
Robinson, John
Reddin, John
Roberts, Robert
Ringe, Daniel
Rawlinsone, Tho's., Jr.
Roffe, Ezra
Roffe, Daniel

Shatswell, John
Symonds, Mark
Spencer, John
Sewall, Henry, Mr.
Saltonstall, Rich'd., Mr.
Short, Anthony
Short, Henry
Symonds, Wm.
Sayward, Edmund
Saunders, John
Sherrat, Hugh
Scott, Thomas
Sherman, Samuel
Seaverns, John
Sawyer, Edmund
Symonds, Samuel, Mr.
Silver, Thomas
Sherman, Tho's.
Scott, Robert
Stacy, Simon
Swinder, Wm.
Smith, Tho's.
Story, Andrew
Safford, Tho's.
Scofield, Rich'd.
Setchell, Theophilus
Smith, Richard
Silsbee, Henry
Smith, George
Story, Wm.
Stacy, Tho's.
Stone, Nath'l.
Scott, Tho's., Jr.
Satchwell, Richard
Smith, Robert
Salter, Theophilus

Tuttle, John
Treadwell, ___, Mr.
1637


1638


1639


1635
1637

1634
1635









1636
1637





1638



1639
1642
1643
1644
1645
1648









1649
1651

1635
Treadwell, Edward
Turner, ___, Cap.
Thornton, John
Treadwell, John
Treadwell, Tho's.
Taylor, Sam'l.
Thomson, Simon
Tingley, Palmer

Varnum, George
Vincent, Humphrey, Mr.

Ward, Nath'l., Mr.
Williamson, Paul
Wyatte, John
Wainwright, Francis
Wells, Thomas
Webster, John
White, Wm.
Whityear, John
Wade, Jona., Mr.
Woodmansee, John, Mr.
Wythe, Humphrey, Mr.
Wilson, Theophilus, Mr.
Wedgwood, John
Whitred, Wm.
Williamson, Michael
Warren, Wm.
Wattles, Richard
Whittingham, John, Mr.
Whipple, Matthew
Whipple, John, Mr.
Wilkinson, Henry
Whitman, Robert
Wallis, Robert
Warner, Daniel
Windall, Tho's.
Wood, Daniel, Cap.
Whittingham, Tho's., Mr.
Woodman, John
Warren, Abraham
Walderne, Abraham
Ward, John, Doct.
Whipple, John, Jr.
Whitred, Thomas
Walderne, Edward
West, John
Wooddam, John
Warner, John
Wood, Obadiah
Walker, Henry

Younglove, Samuel

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Among the changes of two centuries, is this, that many of the preceding names have disappeared from those, whereby the present inhabitants are designated. To the mind which is pleased with nothing, but the glowing descriptions of fancy, and finds no entertainment except at the board of fiction, such an array of proper names, without any connecting chain of remark, to tell of them whom they indicate, may be exceedingly repulsive. But not so is it with the persons, who have been accustomed to look for gold even amid sands; who can find objects worthy of search even in the desert, which surrounds a luxuriant Oasis; who wish to know the primitive settlers of an ancient community, and from them trace the descent of multitudes, scattered in almost every direction over our country. Such lists are among the attractions of history to the reflecter on "olden times"; for by them he connects the present with the past, and has associations of thought awakened and put in motion, which afford him both pleasure and improvement.

GRANTS OF LAND

181629, May 21st. The Assistants of the Company, who settled Massachusetts, meet in London and order that two hundred acres be allowed to each adventurer for £50 in the common stock, and so after this rate. They agree that such adventurers shall have fifty acres for each person whom they send over. They appoint that every man, who has no share in the general stock, and who transports himself and family at his own expense, shall have at least fifty acres. These were the rules, observed by all the ancient towns, in dividing their territory among their population. No individual was permitted for many years, to have any concern in assigning lots, unless he was a freeman. When business of this kind was to be transacted, the meeting for it was headed, Grants made "by the company of freemen," ___ owners of farms had house-lots in the town. This accorded with the following regulation.
181635, May. "No dwelling-house shall be built above a half-mile from the meeting-house in any new plantation,

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without leave from the Court, except mills and farm-houses of such as have their dwellings in town." It was intended to give here a particular account of each grant, but our want of room forbids. The highest number of acres, assigned, at one time, to any person, was somewhat above three hundred. The freemen voted very few lots of land to persons, who came to reside among them, after 1650. The soil, being variously apportioned out up to this period, has passed from one hand to another, so that a large division of it is held by those of a name, different from that of its original proprietors. Such a transfer has been especially promoted, since the right of entailment was negatived by the spirit and influence of our free institutions. The busy, stirring scene, to which our fathers were accustomed, when their first assignments of land were made, has long ago passed away in its living features. Our ancestors too have long since bodily mingled with the dust, though a few mementos are spared by the resistless march of time, to tell us, that they were, though now they are not. Truly wise were those among them, who, while careful to secure earthly possessions, were far more so to inherit heavenly portions.

GRANTS MADE BY THE GENERAL COURT

It was often the case that this Court appropriated lands to individuals and towns. Such appropriations were made to some individuals belonging to Ipswich; and they will be stated under particular notices of those individuals. Only the following will be placed here.
181649, Oct. 17th. Ipswich is allowed two-fifths of Plumb Island. Each town, at its first settlement, did generally agree, that a part, twenty acres, lying between the salt marsh and the low water mark, be for the use of the whole town, to be improved for thatching houses. This agreement, having been rendered void by a former General Court, is now confirmed by the present one.
1661, May 24th. George Smith is granted two hundred acres for £25, adventured by John Smith, 1628.

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COMMON LANDS

51645, Feb. 25th. "Whereas a plott of the cow-common on the north side of the river, containing by estimation three thousand two hundred and forty-four acres more or less, was presented unto the freemen of the town the day and year above written; the freemen do give and grant unto the inhabitants of the town with themselves, their heirs, and successors for ever, (viz. all such as have right to commonage,) all the aforesaid common to be improved as aforesaid."
1660, March 15th. "For as much as it is found by experience, that the common lands of this town are overburdened by the multiplying of dwelling-houses, contrary to the interest and meaning of the first inhabitants in their granting of house-lots and other lands to such as came among them: to the end such inconveniences may be prevented for the future, it is ordered that no house, henceforth erected, shall have any right to the common lands of this town, nor any person, inhabiting such house, make use of any pasture, timber, or wood, growing upon any of said common lands, on pretext of any right or title belonging to any such house hereafter built, without express leave of the town. It is further ordered, that the Seven men, in behalf of the town, petition the next General Court for the confirmation of this order. 18The Court passed a law, May 30th, 1660, in accordance with this petition, that no cottage or dwelling shall have commonage, except those now built, or may be by consent of commoners or towns.
51663, April 16th. "Ordered that no man shall cut any grass on Plumb Island before the 10th of July, nor any family use above two scythes at a time."
1664, Mar 15th. The town vote to grant no more land.
1665, Feb. 14th. "Voted that Plumb Island (the part belonging to Ipswich), Hog Island, and Castle Neck be divided to such, as have the right to commonage, in the proportion of 4, 6, 8; that all who do not exceed 6s. 8d., in their person and estates, in a single country rate, to be of 4; those not exceeding 16s., in such a rate to be of six; those above 16s., together with magistrates, elders, Messrs. John Rogers and

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Thomas Andrews, to be of 8." — April 10th, of two hundred and three commoners, twenty-eight have a double share; seventy, one share and a half; one hundred and five, one share; each share being three acres. There were eight hundred acres of common lands on the three islands, previously mentioned, "besides beaches and galled hills."
1668, March 10th. Five men are admitted to be commoners.
1682, April 13th. Question before the town, "Whether any commoner or inhabitant may take up and inclose land upon the common or high ways, as he or they shall see good, for Tobacco yards and other uses," is decided in the negative.
1702, March 30th. As persons had built cottages on the common lands, it is voted, that they shall pay rent; and that no others shall build thereon without proper leave.
1709, Jan. 11th. Voted, that all common lands be divided into "eighth parts," except what is hereafter to accommodate ancient and new commoners. Voted, that wood-land at Chebacco Ponds, that thatch banks and land above Baker's Pond and Samuel Perley's, Jeffrey's Neck, and Paine's Hill be divided into three-fifths and two-fifths shares. Voted, that any commoner, who has one or more rights and has built one or more new houses in the place of old ones, shall have only the right, for a new house, which belonged to the old one. — 25th, about one hundred and forty commoners are admitted.
431757, April 22d. Voted that Captain Jonathan Fellows, of Cape Ann, have the use of all the sand banks lying in Ipswich, for one year, at £2 13s. 4d. It was a custom thus to lease these banks, while sanded floors remained fashionable.
1788, June 9th. It was decided by a majority of the commoners present, that an absolute grant of all their interest, real and personal, as commoners, be made to the town of Ipswich for the purpose of paying its debts. These debts were contracted to meet the frequent and heavy demands of government, for aiding to carry on the revolutionary war. The vote to help to clear them off was as honorable to the commoners, as it was acceptable to the town. — Oct. 6th. This vote was confirmed as follows; yeas 35Ύ rights, nays 26.
Such a grant was worth about £600. Thus was a body of proprietors dissolved, similar to others, which had existed in

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all our towns. They appear to have had their origin in the freemen who, for years, had the sole disposal of lands, which had not been appropriated, and which belonged to them, as a company. They had annually chosen their officers, admitted members, and managed their concerns, as a business corporation. The commoners of Ipswich had been far from a selfish policy. They frequently gave portions of their income to ministers, schools, and poor of the town, and to those who suffered losses. When exclusive privileges, though continually viewed with an eye of jealousy, are used to promote the public good, the feeling of envy and the voice of reproach against them are greatly diminished. Such privileges, as were possessed by the commoners, had no doubt become uncongenial with the popular views of liberty, as fostered by independence of monarchical government. Having become extinct, such a class of society, as to their former existence and purpose, will remain only on the pages of the past, an evidence that associations and customs disappear, as the circumstances of the community alter.

FREEMEN

To become a freeman, each person was legally required to be a respectable member of some congregational church. Persons were made freemen by the General Court of the colony, and also by quarterly courts of the counties. None but freemen could hold offices or vote for rulers. This regulation was so far modified by Royal order, in 1664, as to allow individuals to be made freemen, who could obtain certificates of their being correct in doctrine and conduct from clergymen acquainted with them.
181634, May 14th. A law is passed that the whole body of freemen meet, from all the towns, at the General Court of Election, and choose the Magistrates, including Governor and Lieut. Governor.
1636, March 3d. Ipswich and five other towns are allowed to keep a sufficient guard of freemen at home from such a Court and to forward their proxies.
1663, Oct. 26th. The practice of freemen's meeting in

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Boston to elect magistrates is repealed. This repeal, however, was so unpopular, that the same practice was renewed next year; but it seems to have gone down soon after. At first, danger from Indians was pleaded, why border and distant towns should retain part of their freemen from General Election. At last, the greatness of the number, when assembled from the whole colony to choose the magistrates, and the concurrent inconveniences of this custom, appear to have been the cause of producing an alteration, which substantially accords with present usage.

NOTE: For more info see
Essex Antiquarian. I found this to be very interesting. John

FREEMEN'S OATH

1634, May 14th. The General Court order this oath to be so far altered, as to accord with the following form.
"I, A.B., being by God's providence an inhabitant and freeman within the jurisdiction of this Commonwealth, do freely acknowledge myself to be subject to the government thereof, and therefore do here swear by the great and dreadful name of the everlasting God, that I will be true and faithful to the same, and will accordingly yield assistance and support thereunto, with my person and estate, as in equity I am bound; and I will also truly endeavour to maintain and preserve all the liberties and privileges thereof, submitting myself to the wholesome laws and orders, made and established by the same. And further, that I will not plot nor practise any evil against it, nor consent to any, that shall so do, but will truly discover and reveal the same to lawful authority now here established, for the speedy preventing thereof. Moreover, I do solemnly bind myself in the sight of God, that when I shall be called to give my voice, touching any such matter of this state, wherein freemen are to deal, I will give my vote and suffrage, as I shall judge in mine own conscience may best conduce and tend to the public weal of the body, without respect of persons or favor of any man; so help me God in the Lord Jesus Christ.
This was essentially the same, as the previous oath.

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RESIDENTS

These were persons, who were either not allowed, or declined, to become freemen. They were not entitled to full civil privileges.
181635, March 4th. All of them, above sixteen years, are to take an oath of fidelity.
1638, Sept. 6th. Persons, neither freemen nor church members, who have excused themselves from voluntary contributions, are required to pay their proportion.
1647, May 26th. They, who are twenty-four years old and who have taken the oath of fidelity, are allowed to be chosen on juries by freemen and to vote for selectmen. The disabilities, under which residents labored, ceased in 1664, when the condition of freemanship became less restricted.

RESIDENT'S OATH

1634, April 1st. Every man of or above twenty, who is or shall be a resident six months and not enfranchised, shall take the subsequent oath before the Governor or Deputy Governor, or the two next Assistants.
"I do here swear and call God to witness, that being now an inhabitant within the limits of this jurisdiction of Massachusetts, I do acknowledge myself lawfully subject to the authority and government here established; and do accordingly submit my person, family, and estate to be protected, ordered, and governed by the laws and constitutions thereof; and do faithfully promise to be from time to time obedient and conformable thereunto, and to the authority of the Governor and all other magistrates and their successors, and to all such laws, orders, sentences, and decrees, as now are or hereafter shall be lawfully made, decreed, and published by them or their successors. And I will always endeavour (as in duty I am bound) to advance the peace and welfare of this body politic, and I will to my best power and means seek to divert and prevent whatsoever may tend to the ruin or damage thereof, or of the Governor, Deputy Governor,

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or Assistants, or any of their successors. And I will give speedy notice to them or some of them of any seditions, violent treachery, or other hurt or evil, which I shall know, hear, or vehemently suspect to be plotted or intended against them or any of them, or against the said Commonwealth, or government established. So help me God."
This oath was the same for substance, as one before used.

MANNER OF WRITING

The Records of Ipswich, like all others of equal age, were so composed for over a half-century, as to require considerable study before they can be readily and correctly rendered. Their spelling and a part of their letters varied from ours. Some of their syllables and words were contracted. They had, in accordance with the custom of the age, the possessive pronoun succeeding a noun in the possessive case, till after 1689; as "Sir Edmund Andros his rule." This is the occasion of one among the precepts of modern grammar, which cautions us against improper expression. Such differences have continually taken place between the chirography of successive centuries, since letters have been extant, as well as in printing, since the more recent invention of types. Two centuries from this, our books, both in manuscript and print, will probably appear as antiquated to others, as those of our ancestors do to us.

CHRONOLOGY

23The people of New England "call the dayes of the weeke beginning Sabbath, "first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh, which is Saturday. They begin their months in March by the names of first, second, third, fourth, and so to the twelfth, which is February.
The primitive records of this town agree with the preceding account. Such a practice lasted many years through the whole country. It was generally exchanged for ours of the

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present day. It was retained by the Friends. By act of Parliament, the year, which had begun on the 25th of March, was ordered to commence January 1st, 1752, and to have eleven days added to it, so as to make Sept. 3d the 14th. Such an addition was made, that the Equinoxes and Solstices might be calculated to fall on their proper dates. It seems that the first emigrants to Massachusetts altered the mode of naming the months for the following reasons. Through the partiality of Charles the First and Bishop Laud, some forms of the Catholic Church had been imposed on the English Church. Besides, Pope Gregory had long endeavoured to have his improvement of the Julian style of reckoning time adopted by Protestant nations. Such a style allowed the months to be called by their proper names, as invented by Romulus and amended by Numa. In order then not to denote the months, as the Catholics did, whose ecclesiastical corruptions had become more than commonly offensive to Puritans, because an increased occasion of their being oppressed by the crown, it is believed that our fathers marked the months by figures and not by Romish words. On this point Lechford observes, they did so "because they would avoid all memory of heathenish and idols names." When reference is now made to dates before 1752, they are said to be Old Style; when made to those after, they are called New Style. Alterations of this kind, though undoubtedly for the better, have been no small tax on the patience of correct annalists, and have led to many anachronisms.

ROYAL STYLE

In Massachusetts the regal mode of heading public papers was abolished June 1st, 1776. This year May 15th, warrants for town-meeting in Ipswich were headed thus, "You are hereby warned in the name of the government and people of Massachusetts Bay." Before, the caption of such warrants was, "In his Majesty's name," which was continued as late as March 1st. This rooting out of the old forms, which had become familiar to children in the play of impressment, was required as pertinent under a new order of legislation, and as a means of cutting off the people from every trammel of royalty and urging them forward in the pursuit of freedom.

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TITLES

The title of Mr. was applied to captains and sometimes to mates of vessels; to military captains; to eminent merchants; to schoolmasters, doctors, magistrates, and clergymen; to persons who had received a second degree at college, and who had been made freemen. The wives and daughters of such individuals were called Mrs. To be deprived of this address was deemed a serious degradation.
1631, Sept. 27th. Josiah Plaistow of Boston, for a misdemanor, is sentenced by the Court of Assistants, "hereafter to be called by the name of Josiah and not Mr., as formerly used to be." The usual appellation of adults, who were not Mr. and Mrs., were goodman and goodwife before their respective surnames. Taking these terms in their radical meaning, it is not strange that they were sometimes, if not often, misapplied.
Distinctions of this sort generally continued, till the colony was merged in an extensive province, under Joseph Dudley, 1686, when the custom of making and recording freemen seems to have ceased. Hence these distinctions gradually fell into disuse.

"When merit pleads, titles no deference claim." (Broome.)

MIDDLE NAMES

Scarcely any persons had these names before 1731, when they began to increase slowly. By 1783 they had become considerably fashionable, though nothing near so abundant as at present. Were many of the individuals, who have from one to four of such names, to travel in Asiatic Turkey and be particularly asked the reason and definition of them, as is customary there, they would be hardly able to give an intelligible and satisfactory answer.

DWELLING-HOUSES

Johnson remarks of Ipswich dwellings about 1646, "Their houses are many of them very faire built with pleasant gar-

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dens." From the appearance of houses, erected here one hundred and fifty years since, the better sort of them were two stories high, with the upper story jutting out a foot or so over the lower. The roofs of them, being generally hipped or gambrel, were high and steep. Some of the grander ones among them had one or two peaks on each side of the roof, so as to form small chambers. The frames of these buildings were of white-oak and much larger than we use in our day, having the beams of each finished room considerably in sight. They show that so valuable wood was very plenty, and that there was little fear of its becoming scarece, as it now is.
The windows of such houses were from two and half to three feet long, one and a half to two wide, with squares, like the figure of a diamond, set in lead lines, and from three to four inches long. These windowss were sometimes entire, and sometimes in halves, and opened outwardly on hinges. They were fashionable till after 1734. Those with four by six succeeded, the five by seven, then six by eight, then seven by nine, set in woooden frames, which began to be used here eighty years ago. Such sized glass as was put into these frames appeared, at its different periods of increase, as much larger than the diamond-formed, as the great squares of our day, which began to be in use here thirty-five years since, seemed in comparison with those that immediately preceded them. The doors of the best houses, ninety years past, had diagrams marked on them, as large as the squares of glass, set in lead lines, and had brass nails driven in at the points of the angles.
As lime-stone was little known and less manufactured for over a century, the walls of houses were daubed with clay, mixed with straw, or plastered with a sort of lime made in great part from clam-shells. Paper not being put on walls till a century ago, and very little until 1783, whitewash was used in its stead.
Each side of a dwelling had bricks laid against the inner partition, being then covered with clay, and then with clapboards. These boards, being so immediately put on the clay, were long called clayboards instead of clapboards. It was thus our fathers sought to make their abodes comfortable in cold weather, as well as durable. While the better kind of buildings were shingled on the top, others, such as cottages of one story, had thatched roofs till after 1691. This was no doubt

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an imitation of a custom in England, where it still exists in country villages; and made our thatch-banks in greater demand than they are now.
Very few if any houses had more than one chimney previously to 1700. This was in the middle, was of large dimensions, and, besides other fireplaces, had a mammoth-like one for the kitchen, where a whole family could sit conveniently on the two forms or benches, placed in the corners. Even now most of the houses standing, have but one chimney. Instead of free-stone, soap-stone, and marble, as sometimes now used on the tops and sides of fireplaces, there were occasionally, as early as 1728, Dutch china tiles with scriptural representations.
Houses had little or no paint on them, inside or out, before 1734. Even half a century since, it was not common for the best room, and much less for the whole building, to be thus ornamentd. Very few houses were painted outside as late as 1800. Since then the number of them, thus ornamented, has gradually increased.
1831. Besides two hundred and ninety-eight barns, there were in Ipswich three hundred and thirty-two dwelling-houses. Of these only eight are three stories high.

FUEL

The first settlers thought no more of burning twenty or thirty cords of wood annually, than we do of burning five. 33"All Europe is not able to make so great fires as at New England. Here is good living for those who love good fires." As the Indians resided on a spot, till they had consumed the trees around them, and then sought another place, where were enough more, they thought that one reason, why our ancestors emigrated to this country, was that they had burnt out their fuel in England and came to America for a fresh supply. The price of hard wood in Ipswich forty years ago was two dollars a cord; now it is six to eight dollars. Peat began to be used in some families about fifty years since. It is now burnt considerably by farmers, who have it in their grounds, and whose wood has become scarce. It was made into coal

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sixty years past and used on the forges of blacksmiths. Frequently individuals hire pieces of bog and pay two dollars a rod, for peat two feet and a half deep. Anthracite coal began to be used by some a year or two since.

LIGHT

"Although New England has no tallow to make candles of, yet by the abundance of the fish thereof, it can afford oil for lamps. Yea, our pine trees, that are most plentiful of all wood, do allow us plenty of candles, which are useful in a house. And they are such candles as the Indians commonly use, having no other; and they are nothing else but the wood of the pine tree cloven in two little slices, something thin, which are so full of the moisture of turpentine and pitch, that they burn as clear as a torch."
Though this account was given by Mr. Higginson as to Naumkeag, in 1629, there is no reason to forbid its application to Agawam in 1633 and afterwards. We are credibly told, that such rude lights are burnt even now in the back parts of Alabama.
26The oil consumed by our ancestors was mostly obtained from fish livers. It continued to be generally used among their descendants till within forty years. The lamp, which contained this oil, was large, made of tin, had a great wick, and was commonly hung on one side of the fireplace. 37As whale and sea-horse oil was among the staple commodities of the colony in 1642, it is likely, that the wealthier people of Ipswich burnt it occasionally, if not frequently.
Tallow candles were very little used till within a half century. Governor Winthrop desired his son John, in 1630, to send him over some ordinary suet or tallow, which was probably for the manufacture of such lights. Neither our ancestors nor we have employed spirits to light our houses, as some have recently in our country, a use far less objectionable than consuming human vitals by them; or gas, as ingeniously and conveniently used by many in our metropolis for several years.

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DRINKS

ARDENT SPIRIT. There is mournful proof, that this found its serpentine way among the first inhabitants of Ipswich, as well as among those of other communities. Still, such "firewater," as rightly it was called by Indians, was very far from being so common, as it has been in our age. A gentleman, over ninety, informs us, that much less of it was consumed here in 1760, for the same number of people, than there is now, even since the temperance reformation. Then, a pint was made to go as far among workmen, as a gallon in latter years. Other poisons have slain their thousands, but this its tens of thousands. Happy the people, who shall cast it from among them, and consign it to the care of judicious apothecaries.
WINE. This was drunk sparingly by a small proportion of the primitive emigrants. It was taken, as well as spirits, for many years, from a cup. Like every thing of the kind, which produces excitement, though it endangers and debases, it grew upon the appetite of the people, even faster than their growth. In 1639, the legislature forbid healths to be drunk, undoubtedly with wine; and, in 1672, they require it not to be given to workmen. Such enactments, however, neither caged nor bound the abuse of this liquid. Multitudes, now living, can remember when tyrant fashion would obtrude it upon their taste, by night and by day, whenever making a call upon others either for business or pleasure. There is indeed matter for unfeigned thankfulness to our Maker, that He has caused the threatening tide of this custom to be turned back. It is vain for us to expect, that ever total abstinence from spirits will hold its own, and make great advances, until the use of wine, for those in health, is banished from society.
BEER. For the first half century, families in general had their beer apparatus, with which they brewed their common beverage. As orchards increased and came to maturity, this drink of their "father-land" was in less and less demand.
CIDER. This, as the successor of beer, long continued to be a standing liquid for most of our households. Its abuse has hastened not a few to the precipice of intemperance, from which they have fallen no more to rise. Such have been the ravages made by canker worms, within several years, upon our apple-trees, that cider has become less plenty than it was.

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Should a loss of this kind weaken appetite for stronger liquids, it will prove a gain indeed.
How much less bound down to oppressive and expensive habits would men have been, had they realized, that there was a far better drink than all these, divinely provided for them! God, when making bare the arm of his might and mercy, when performing miracles to relieve those perishing with thirst, never sent them spirit, wine, beer, or cider, but simple, unadulterated water. He has thus given us a striking lesson, as to what is best to revive the drooping and refresh the lanquid. His teaching is infallible. As we learn of Him, so shall we be blessed.
COFFEE. This article was not used by any of our original inhabitants, whether rich or poor. It does not meet our eye on their inventories of stores. It was introduced into Martinico, 1717, Surrinam, 1718, and Jamaica, 1732. A considerable number of years must have elapsed after the last of these periods, before coffee could have become an article of much importation into this colony. Of so recent an origin in our part of the world, there is no wonder, that coffee was little used, and this only by wealthier families in Ipswich, as tradition relates, till 1770; and then not a tenth part so much as it was soon after the peace of 1783. In our contest for independence, as well as in our last war with Britain, most people, on account of the great price and scarcity of coffee, substituted for it burnt rye, beets, peas, and potatoes.
TEA. The beverage made from this herb was unknown to the primitive social circles of Ipswich. It had no Lettsoms or Cullens to descant upon its poisonous or salutary effects. The first mention of it in English statutes was in 1660. From this fact, it is not strange, that tea was very seldom drunk by our ancestors for over a century after they settled Agawam. The first instance of meeting, on accounts of Ipswich estates, with tea equipage, was 1739. From about 1718 tea slowly made its way into the favor and usage of the richer part of this community. Other people scarcely ever had it, except on particular occasions of having company. Not a few anecdotes are related by aged individuals, which show how awkward their mothers were in "making tea," even down to 1760; which tell of various experiments they tried, before they ascertained the proper quantity, and acquired the desired taste. It is evident from these trials, that people have no natural

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relish for such a plant; and that they were desirous to adopt it, as an item of domestic living, more for the sake of imitating the example of the rich, than for any good it did them. It has always been the case, that things "dear bought and far fetched" have an imaginary worth affixed to them, and thus have gained a great preference over others, equally good, but nigh at hand and of no computed value. Our difficulties with Parliament increasing, and the compacts entered into by numerous towns not to import tea, because of the tax on it, prevented this article from getting into general use, till some years after the close of the Revolutionary war. During this struggle, Liberty tea was adopted by some, as a substitute for that of India. It was made of four-leaved loosestrife. This plant was pulled up like flax; its stocks, stripped of their leaves, were boiled; and the leaves were put into an iron kettle and basted with the liquor of the stocks. After this process the leaves were removed into platters and placed in an oven to dry. A pound of this tea would go as far as one of Souchong. It sold quickly in barter for about 6d. a pound.
CHOCOLATE. This article, being made by Spaniards, not long after their settlement in South America, was used earlier than coffee and tea, both in Europe and in the English Colonies. It was drunk occasionally by the original settlers of Ipswich, who were in good circumstances. Once a week, when an unusual treat was hankered after, a kettle would be hung over the fire with the necessary ingredients of water, milk, and chocolate. This has never been generally used here, probably because of its producing a heaviness of feeling. Neither our ancestors nor we have resembled the Spaniard, who would look on himself as sunk in the most abject poverty, if he could not procure a daily portion of such beverage.

SWEETENING

Sugar was long imported from the East into Europe, as a great rarity. It was employed more as a medicine than otherwise. In 1641, sugar-cane begins to be planted in the West Indies. Of course, not a few years must have elapsed, before it could have become a common article of food among the people of this town. So early, however, as 1630, Governor Winthrop requested his son to send him some of it from Lon-

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don; and, in 1637, the General Court laid a heavy duty on it, which was soon repealed. These instances are consistent with the position already expressed. The more wealthy had sugar in their families for special occasions, and in proportion as they used chocolate, tea, and coffee. But others, not having these last three articles, for a long period, did without sugar till they came to have them as a part of their domestic meals.
In an account of an Ipswich estate, in 1674, molasses is named, which shows that it had been used here in some degree. This kind of sweetening was more common than that of sugar. Both sugar and molasses were consumed much more by people in general after the peace of Independence, than before. It may be a fair question, however nutritious sweetening is in itself, whether it has not promoted the thousand delicacies and luxuries, which were almost unknown to our ancestors, and have thus impaired the health of their descendants by new diseases.

FOOD

Dinners, though not the same in every respect formerly as now, have never essentially varied. Such meals, in England, were commonly taken at 11 o'clock before noon, in the 16th century. The regular hour in Ipswich has been, for the most part, at twelve o'clock, when the bell rings. There was a time, a few years since, when the bell rang at half past twelve. The suppers and breakfasts of our former inhabitants have been very much altered. For more than a century and a half, the most of them had pea and bean porridge, or broth, made of the liquor of boiled salt meat and pork, and mixed with meal, and sometimes hasty pudding and milk, — both morning and evening. This is indeed different from our fare. Were an original proprietor of our soil to revisit us, and look in upon our tables at the beginning and close of day, and judge where he was by the appearance of them, he would think himself in a strange land. Among the several articles of diet already mentioned, broth was more common than the rest. A lady of eighty relates, that she had become so attached to it, that after having been in several families, about 1790, and partaken of their Thanksgiving dainties, she was heartily glad to return home and get a meal of her favorite broth. This

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